Morphemes Language Learners because it breaks downMorphemes Language Learners because it breaks down





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            Morpheme is important for English Language
Learners because it breaks down the word and creates different meaning from its
elements for speakers. Learning English isn’t only about how to read the sentences
and the words, the speaker must be able to make meaning of the elements of word.
When the speakers understanding the morpheme of s or ing, they will be able to
comprehend that construct of language with many different words. Free morphemes and bound morphemes are the types of morphemes.





Morpheme is the
minimal linguistic unit that carries meaning.

For example, the word
talkers are made up of three morphemes {talk}+{er}+{s}. Each can exist in other
structures of morphemes without changing its meaning.   Like (talk) in talking, talks, and {er} in farmer,
teacher, as well as talker. And {s} can be found in books, pens, and cats.


Morphemes can vary
in size: the word can indicate what is a morpheme and what isn’t. For example, Pharmacy
is a single morpheme, and  -y (as in
sleepy) is also a single morpheme.


Two different
morphemes can be vocalized the same way. For example, the –er in seller means
something like ‘the one who sell’ while the –er in larger means something like
‘to a greater degree than others’ .The first –er always attaches to a verb,
while the second –er always attaches to an adjective. (The first is called the
agentive morpheme and the second is called the comparative morpheme.


When we see words like
boys, girls, shirts, books, we know

that (–s) is the plural
morpheme.  But words such as men or women
is the plural form for man and woman it is not by adding –s but by changing the
form of word.



The word men, morphologically
is (man) in plural form, even though the form of (PLU) is quite different in
this case.

In the same way, it
seems sensible to say that went = (go) in (past), just as walked = (walk) in (past),
even though in the first case (PAST) involves a morphological change in form
quite different from the usual adding of –ed. And re- as in (renew) it means (again).



Morpheme terms:


Free morphemes
and bound morphemes are the types of morphemes.

Free morphemes can stand by themselves,
but bound morphemes can not, some of them have fixed meanings, like (re-) which
means again. 


Free morphemes have two separate classes called

(a) Lexical (open) and (b) functional (closed).

Lexical morpheme is a morpheme in a word that gives the
word its  main meaning. An example of
lexical morpheme is (man, book, car dog). An example of a functional is(and,
that, it, in).


All affixes are bound and they are of
two types: derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes.


Derivational morphemes:

We use derivational morphemes to make words of different
grammatical category from the stem.

Bound morpheme that comes before or after a base is
called (affix). Prefix comes before the base, e.g. (ante-, pre-, un-,
and dis-) as in the following words:


Suffix comes after the base. For example (-ly, -er, -ism,
and –ness) as in the following words:





Derivational affixes change the meaning of a word by
building on a base. We see the examples of words with prefixes and suffixes
above, the addition of the prefix un- to known alters the
meaning of known. The resulting word means “not known” The
addition of the suffix -er to farm changes the meaning of farm,
which is a place where plants grow to a word that refers to ‘a person who work
in the farm. All prefixes in English are derivational. But suffixes can be
either derivational or inflectional.

Inflectional morphemes:

Derivational affixes are many in English. But there are
only eight inflectional affixes in English, and these are all suffixes. The
following inflectional suffixes show different grammatical functions when added
to a specific words.


-‘s     possessive
-s      verb present
for third person
-ing   verb present participle/gerund
-ed    verb in past tense
-en    verb past perfect participle
-er     adjective comparative
-est   adjective superlative




The difference between
derivational and inflectional morphemes that the inflectional morphemes never
changes the grammatical category of a word for example, both short and shorter
are adjectives. On the other hand a derivational morpheme changes the grammatical
category of word e.g. the verb learn becomes the noun learner if we add the
derivational morpheme -er.




Morphs and allomorph:


       Morph is the actual forms used to
realize morphemes. For example, the form (cars) consists of tow morphs, car +
-s realizing a lexical morpheme car and inflectional morpheme (plural). Allomorphs
are a group of different morphs e.g. the phonetic (s) of cats, (z) of pigs, and
(z) horses are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme. But in sheep or men
there is zero morph.














        Morpheme can be free or bound. 
And a given morpheme will belong to exactly one of them.  


1.    Free morphemes can function independently as words (e.g.
room, moon) and can appear with other word (e.g. room door, moon light)


2.    Bound morphemes comes always as
a parts of words, in English it comes as prefixes or suffixes e.g. (un-) always
accompanied with other morphemes to form a word that have new meaning.