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Music has developed and changed from 1950 to the present day in so many ways with the emergences of new genres, different races and cultures working together to create new sounds and technological developments. In this essay I will be looking in great depth at our music heritage from 1950 to the present day. In the 1950s many states in the USA were segregated in everything they did this included going to public facilities like schools, libraries, restaurants and this also included listening to music because of this Rock ‘n’ Roll wasn’t really welcomed in the US by racial and religious segregationists, and political opportunists. Country music was the folk music of white Americans and was mainly marketed and consumed by white audiences and rhythm and blues was marketed and consumed by a largely black audience in America. Rock ‘n’ Roll’s immediate origins lay in a mixing together of various black music genre of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music with country, western music. The fusion of both styles created Rock ‘n’ Roll in the mid-1950s. An early Rock ‘n’ Roll artist was Bill Haley and His Comets, who had a hit in 1955 called “Rock Around the Clock”.  When Rock ‘n’ Roll first emerged it wasn’t very popular because it was first released on vinyl and only middle class white Americans could afford these. Using Billy Haley and His Comet’s hit “Rock Around the Clock”, it consisted of 2 guitars, one lead and one rhythm, it also contains a double bass, an accordion, a saxophone, and a drum kit. The double bass played a repetitive bass line similarly to many blues songs. The saxophone and the accordion played a repeated riff which is based off the 12-bar blues. Bill Hayley starts the song with call and response with the band with the structure of Intro, Verse, Chorus, Verse, Chorus, Instrumental Break, Verse, Chorus, Verse, Chorus, Instrumental Break, Verse and Chorus. Rock ‘n’ roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, consisted of either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s, drums, a bass and a singer. The beat is mainly a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, almost always provided by a snare drum. Rock ‘n’ roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a double bass or string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Lyrics were about love, going out on the weekend, rebelling parents and was described as ‘Teenager’. The bass was usually played a scale behind the front line, whilst the drums give off more of a lively beat. The acoustic guitar would be strummed heavily, to be loud and full, whilst the electric did a small riff. The main time signatures us in Rock ‘n’ Roll were 3/4 or 4/4 and they would also use the 12-bar blues usually played by the bassist to keep a steady tempo. The tempos were usually kept between 100-130 BPM. The texture throughout the song will become monophonic as the singer will perform a solo, and this began to happen more often within Elvis Presley’s songs. One of the pioneers of Rock and roll music is Chuck Berry, he refined and developed the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive, focusing on teen life and introducing guitar solos which later had a major influence on rock music.  Iconic Rock ‘n’ Roll artists included Chuck Berry, Jerry Lee Lewis, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Les Paul, Elvis Presley, Big Joe Turner and Bo Diddley. In 1940 the first fully electric guitar was introduced and therefore the electric guitar was common in music genres, as the need for amplified sound increased. Rock ‘n’ Roll was heavily influenced by electric guitar as it was used in almost every rock and roll song. ? Rock and roll had a faster tempo than blues and country music as it has a much livelier mood than other genres due to chord sequences and tempo. Many Rock ‘n’ Roll songs were influenced by blues traits such as the 12 bar blues. Using the 12 bar blues, rock and roll was a faster version which brought more life into music. Rock and roll also used guitar solos as one of the main parts of the song like blues did.??Rock ‘n’ Roll in many cases is said to be ‘the blues but sped up’. Chuck Berry- Johnny B Goode The song Johnny B Goode has the chord sequence of 12-bar blues. The piece included an electric guitar, drum kit, tenor vocal, bass and piano. The guitar techniques included bending notes, pull offs, all pizzicato strings. The piano plays fills on the blues scale. The vocal does not use many techniques; it is all the same sort of tone. The tempo is constant at 168 bpm. The texture is quite thick, playing as a melody dominated homophony. However, in the intro it is monophonic with just the guitar. The song uses repetition with the lyrics “Go Johnny Go”. The guitar uses many little riffs during the song. The time signature of the song is 4/4. The piano can be heard improvising throughout the whole song.  1960s  In the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm and blues was being called soul. Soul music was performed by exclusively black musicians combining Rhythm and Blues and Gospel.  Soul was still mainly listened to by black audiences through independent record labels in America. In Rhythm and blues music or Soul music of the 1960s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, saxophone, and sometimes background vocalists. In the 1960s musicians paid more attention to the production and sound of the arrangements.  There would often be lush strings with soulful vocals over the top. Lyrical themes were often emotional as they often express the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, themes of triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, and sex. Many labels used studio musicians and production teams including Gene McFadden and John Whitehead.   Overall soul had evolved from blues by no longer using the same chord sequence and using different instrumentation but kept some elements of blues with it as well. Other soul artists became more politically active during the late 1960s supporting various civil rights movements. Ben E King – Stand By Me (1960)  King’s hit song contains two verses from psalms 46:2-3, the lyrics of STAND BY ME are an unmistakable demand and an pleading request of a strong and steadfast-for-ever partner, who repels all possible danger and protects the singer against every outer (“mountains crumble to the see”, this is the bible-citation) or inner catastrophe. Musically the song is a mixture of musical simplicity, the repeated I-VI-IV-V-I pattern later often called “STAND BY ME Changes”; the melodic phrase developed out of a short ascending motif. The most characteristic musical elements are the acoustic bass line with an accent on the fourth eighth and the luscious string arrangement with rich melodic parts and background vocals in the last verse. Ben E. King’s vocal style is representative for the late rhythm & blues style on the crossing to early soul; King sings with the characteristic of a gospel sound, his timbre is as noisy, and the handling of short bluesy melismatic ornaments resembles the style of influential contemporary Atlantic-singers like Ray Charles, and the following soul star Otis Redding.  Otis Redding – Try a Little A Tenderness  Otis Redding’s version of this features a slow soulful opening that eventually builds into a typical R&B conclusion. It includes the use of a brass section, a heavy use of organ, electric guitar, keyboard and drums. The vocals are tenor. Throughout the whole song it slowly builds up in layers of instrumentation and dynamics.  This song is differs from previous genres like blues music and rock ‘n’ roll, because the electric guitar is not the frontline instrument.    SOUL music was designed to be rhythmic and danceable.  This made is a forerunner of DISCO.  Often the rhythm section was complimented by a horn section consisting of saxophones and trumpets which would punctuate the music with rhythmic stabs.  The guitar was often relegated to a rhythm instrument often playing on the off beat, and influence from FUNK music..   Motown In 1960, a man called Berry Gordy Junior set up the record label Motown Records.  Its aim was to make black music commercial and appealing to both black and white audiences with pop oriented Rhythm and Blues or Soul.  As Motown was trying to attract a white audience as well as black they avoided creating songs about political issues and focused on love and other teenage themes. Motown is a very important moment in music because they helped to encourage racial integration in music and especially because it was the first record label owned by and primarily featured African American artists. Motown had tremendous success with artists such as the Supremes, Marvin Gaye, the Jackson 5 and Stevie Wonder. Motown can be described as a mixture soul and pop classics.   The Motown Sound used tambourines and hand claps to accent the back beat, prominent and often melodic electric bass-guitar instrumentation, distinctive melodic and chord structures, and a call-and-response singing style originating in gospel music. They also used blaring horns, interplay between the lead singer and his or her backup vocalists, driving bass lines and foot-slapping drum parts Motown artists included Martha and the Vandellas, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, The Temptations, The Four Tops, Diana Ross and the Supremes, Gladys Knight and the Pips, The Jackson 5, Stevie Wonder and Marvin Gaye.  British Beat/ Mersey Beat In the 1960s America primarily had dominated the popular music scene.  With the arrival of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Beatles, British bands took their music to America.  This is often referred to as ‘The British invasion’.  The Rolling stones were known for their R ‘n’ B influences, whereas the Beatles could be broadly termed, 60s rock. The Rolling Stones mainly took the USA by storm because they were listening to both white and black audiences in the USA hence their influences from the Rhythm and Blues and because the white audience weren’t paying attention to music from African Americans when they heard it from The Rolling Stones it caught their attention. The Beatles were an English rock band that formed in Liverpool in 1960. The members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they became widely regarded as the greatest and most influential act of the rock era. Rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the Beatles experimented with many genres, ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelic and hard rock later in their career, often using classical elements in creative ways. In the early 1960s, their popularity first emerged as “Beatlemania”, but as their song writing grew in complexity and meaning, led by primary songwriters Lennon-McCartney, they came to be?seen as an ’embodiment of the ideals shared by the era’s revolution’.