Nanofibers have diameter less than 100
nm and have been used in various medical applications. They are safe due to
their extremely long length, and can easily be incorporated onto any media or
support. They also have high surface-to-volume ratio, adjustable functionality,
and large porosity. Due to these properties, they have been used in filtration
of particulates, airborne nanoscale particles, and other 47.
Polymer nanofibers have been widely
used for extraction of antidepressants. In one study, polymer nanofibers had
been utilized to prepare electrospun polystyrene nanofibers and these nanofibers
were used as a SPE sorbent to directly extract trazodone from human plasma. SPE
has been widely used for its high selectivity and good reproducibility in
sample preparation of biological matrixes. These electrospun polystyrene
nanofibers were utilized in the treatment of human plasma for the extraction of
antidepressants. The target compound was then monitored by HPLC-UV, the study showed
extraction recoveries of 58.3-75.2% and the relative recoveries of 94.6-105.5% for
extraction of trazodone from human plasma. The linear response for trazodone
over the range of 20-2000 ng mL-1 and the LOD was determined to be 8.0
ng mL-1. Overall, the results that the developed electrospun polystyrene
nanofibers and the analysis procedure is an effective extraction method in
pharmaceutical analysis of trazodone from human plasma. It provides a number of
advantages in simplifying sample preparation and reducing the cost and time of
the analysis with acceptable reliability, selectivity, and sensitivity 48.
Hollow fiber-based liquid phase
microextraction (HF-LPME) was applied for the extraction and preconcentration
of three antidepressant drugs including amitriptyline, imipramine and
sertraline in the biological samples. The antidepressants adsorption
experiments were carried out using an accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber
membrane (Wuppertal, Germany) with a 0.2µm pore size, 600µm internal diameter and
200µm wall thickness have been used as adsorbent for antidepressants extraction.
The target drugs were then monitored by HPLC-UV, the calibration curves were
obtained in the range of 5-500 µg L-1 and the LODs ranged between
0.5 and 0.7 µg L-1. The study showed extraction recoveries of 65-68%.
Overall, the study exhibited the excellent performance of the HF-LPME technique
for the extraction of antidepressant drugs from biological samples prior to
HPLC analysis 49.
Nanoshells are made of a dielectric
core and are covered by a thin metallic film. The core-shell nanoparticles of
the type [email protected]@N-cetylpyridinium have
been used for MSPE of amitriptyline and nortriptyline. [email protected]
cores were used to immobilize the N-cetylpyridinium through adsorption of
amitriptyline and nortriptyline from plasma samples. The study showed antidepressants
extraction relative recoveries in the range from 89 to 105 %. The detection
limits are 0.04 and 0.08 ng mL-1. Overall, the MSPE method exhibited
selective and efficient and preconcentration of tricyclic antidepressant amine
containing groups’ drugs using core-shell nanoparticles of the type [email protected]@N-cetylpyridinium
Nanocomposites such as polymer 51,52, graphene based 53,54, and magnetic
polymer 55,56 have been widely
used in medical applications such as in for the extraction of drugs.
Nanocomposites consist of a combination of nanomaterials, which enhance its
overall antidepressants adsorbing capability. In one such case, a sensitive MSPE
method based on Fe3O4–MgSiO3 magnetic
nanocomposites was developed for extraction of some antidepressants drugs (venlafaxine,
escitalopram, paroxetine, sertraline and fluoxetine) in serum and urine samples
by using LC-UV. The LOD and LOQ for the target antidepressant were found to be
in the range of 1.73–2.83 and 5.21–8.53 ng mL-1, respectively. The
obtained recoveries in the range of 72–115 % with RSD < 4.75%. Overall, this material (Fe3O4–MgSiO3) has been employed as an SPE adsorbent for separating and extracting trace amounts of antidepressant drugs from serum and urine samples 57.Polymer-based nanosorbents such as organic polymers 58,59, inorganic and hybrid polymers 60,61, and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) 62,63 have been widely used in medical applications such as, for the extraction of drugs 64.