ObjectivesThe as frequencies and percentages or meansObjectivesThe as frequencies and percentages or means

ObjectivesThe purpose of
this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of use of
energy stimulants (such as caffeine containing products and beverages and
energy drinks) amongst students at public sector medical colleges in Peshawar. MethodologyA
cross-sectional study was conducted involving students attending the public
sector medical colleges in Peshawar. A sample of students was randomly selected
and students were presented with an information sheet explaining the purpose
and aim of the study as well as their role in the study. Once they gave verbal
consent to participate they were requested to complete a questionnaire. All the
completed questionnaires were entered into a dataset on a computer using the
SPSS software, and analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS version 17
for Microsoft Windows. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics
such as frequencies and percentages or means and standard deviations. The cross
tabulation chi square statistic were used to evaluate the statistical
significance of differentiation. The
survey included questions regarding demographics, caffeine (consumption,
reasons for use) and stimulants (use, reason for use ). Further, data was
collected by students and their level of stimulants consumption.ResultsThe
final dataset included 416 students categorized into two groups 1st
– 2nd year and 3rd – final year out of which 92.08% of
surveyed students reported that they drank stimulants containing
beverages. Energy drinks and coffee were found to be the most common sources of
stimulants followed by soft drinks and tea. On comparison it is estimated that
2nd group of students was founded more prevalent than 1st
group of students. The intake of stimulants was found higher on exam days than
normal days. Also, there was higher stimulants intake by smokers than non
smokers. Regarding energy drinks, a greater percentage of males than females
were found to consume energy drinks. The
most common self reported reasons for consuming stimulants containing products
were: To improve alertness, To improve concentration, To improve exam, To
improve memory, To relax.  Assuming that this sample is representative of
the larger student population, it is estimated that the prevalence of
stimulants use for students lies within the range: 92.08% to 96.4% (95%
confidence interval).  Conclusion

A substantial proportion of students in this
sample were found to consume stimulants containing products. The study
demonstrated that cognitive enhancing substance use was increased around times
of academic stress. As a greater proportion of students consumed high doses of
caffeine during exam period.Only a small percentage of students reported use of
other stimulants, but importantly, this was more common amongst high consumers
of caffeine. Further studies at other universities are required to confirm the
findings of this study.

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