Overall, values and self-control (Cohen,1993). Marxism andOverall, values and self-control (Cohen,1993). Marxism and

Overall, Marxists’ theories regarding capitalism are actual
in today’s society. This is particularly manifested in the amount of corporate
greediness that exploiting workers in the modern days. One of the realities we
face currently is that capitalism, still creates the unequal opportunities
between the labour and company’s owners. Marx argued that the working class’
wages essentially, it does not allow individuals to have a decent living level.
Meanwhile, the rich continue to exploit the workers and watch their own profits
steadily rise; the poor population only seem to get poorer, as unemployment
level continues fluctuating but the wages remain at the bare minimum. In this
sense, the third world countries only benefit, the companies are moving their
factories overseas, where the minimum wage is not mandated. Marxists are
working to meet needs humans cooperated with each other, that they could enter
into social relations of production. Overtime system, as the forces of
production, developed the social relation and the production changed (Seidman,1994).

Functionalism has provided with a useful understanding of
the society, despite its limitations. One of the main mechanism is
socialisation; through the socialisation, individuals internalise the norms and
values of the system. The different agencies such as the family and education,
contribute to this process. Another important mechanism is social
control. Where the positive sanctions reward conformity, while negative
sanctions are punishing deviance. The social control makes
predictable the behaviour of each individual and allows cooperation. This
integration into the shared norms order makes orderly social life possible. We
live in a society with a capitalist system of production. This system of
production forms the economic base of society; the economic base shapes all
other features of society, the superstructure of the institutions and beliefs
arise from this base. Today, people have a variety of specialist roles but the
moral code of the roles have weakened, what means a lack of values and
self-control (Cohen,1993).

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Marxism and Functionalism have similarities in common, for
instance, they believe there is a social structure which shapes society. There
is only the thing that functionalists think that it’s based on a hierarchy of
social order, whereas, Marxists say that is based on two classes. They both,
also see the individuals as controlled by society; this is a deterministic
approach. Both theories, also, are ideological and are stating that society is
supported by the systems that prevalent ideas and beliefs. Functionalism
and Marxism believe that social life functions on the principles of causes and
effects. Both theories see that socialisation, is also important, for the
maintenance of society. They emphasise a belief in the scientific study of
society and are the positivistic theories.

The views of how society operates are different. The
difference is that Functionalists believe, the parts of society work together
to keep the society running, whereas, Marxists see societies are unequal and
unfair. Marxists claim that there are only two classes and it is very hard to
progress up a class. Whereas, Functionalists disagree and claim, the harder you
work, the better your social position, and the more you achieve. For example,
Functionalists view, the education system socialises society into the culture
and this provides with values that support society. There is a disagreement
with this view, Marxists see the social institutions are being used by the
ruling class to control the working class, and also, education provides people
with the values, which support the bourgeoisie exploitation. Functionalism
states, the values exist as part of society, rather than individuals, and our
society must be socialised into the values, in order to work. Marxists believe
the values are transmitted to the proletariat through religion, education and
the media. Functionalism sees society as a shared culture and emphasises a
cultural determinism, whereas Marxism sees that having a material structure and
emphasises the economic determinism. Marxism believes that an instrument of
social control and a source of power for the dominant class is culture.
However, Functionalists see the culture as institutions that shared people’s
norms and values. Marxism emphasis socialisation into a capitalist society that
only benefits to the ruling class. Functionalism argues that socialisation is
the mechanism, by which, value consensus is formed, and allow the social order
and stability. Marxism is based on a conflict perspective, whereas functionalism
is based on consensus (Seidman, 1994).