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Firstly, the Ancient Egyptian building structure that incorporates light into its design is called Abu-Simbel. It was originally located on the western bank of Lake Nasser in southern Egypt when it was built by Ramses II in the 13th Century BC. However, it had to be relocated between 1964-68 AD when a newly built reservoir threatened to put the whole structure underwater. The original place is now underwater and its new location is roughly 200 feet higher than it was. Abu-Simbel consists of two massive temples, one dedicated to the sun gods (Amon-Re and Re-Horakte) and the other slightly smaller one dedicated to Nefertari (the wife of Ramses II) and was used for the worship of Hathor (the goddess of love).
The temple dedicated to the sun gods was designed in a way as to allow sun rays to penetrate deep inside and illuminate the shrines in the sanctuary. The sun rays would illuminate all of the shrines, except for one: the statue of Ptah, the God of the Underworld. This reflected the fact that he ruled over the dead, those who no longer see the daylight. The sun rays only reached inside on two days of the year on October 22 and February 22.
Secondly, the Mayan building incorporating light into its design is ‘El Castillo’ (also known as the Temple of Kukulkan) located in what used to be Chichen Itza and is now known as Tinum, Mexico. It was built around 800 BC and the structure functions as a Mayan calendar. Each side contains nine levels divided in 2 by a staircase forming 18 separate segments to represent 18-20 day months in the Mayan year. Each facade contains 52 panels, representing the 52 years in a Maya calendar round. All 4 stairways contain 91 steps and including the top platform that makes 365, one for each day of the year. The shadow play on the stairs give an impression of a serpent crawling down, whose head is carved at the bottom of the stairs. This represents the feathered serpent ‘Kulkulkan’ who is a Mayan snake deity.
Finally, the other building mentioned in lectures that deals with light in its design is the Pantheon in Rome, rebuilt in 118-128 AD. The dome structure allowing light to enter through the middle represents the heaven and originally the structure was covered in gold to represent the sun.Question 2: Ancient Mesopotamia civilization and India Buddhism have built two types of monumental buildings as device to communicate with gods above. What are the general names of these buildings? What are the difference of these two types of building in terms of forms and materials? What is the common characteristic of these two types of buildings in terms of space use?
Firstly, in Ancient Mesopotamia the monumental building device built in order to communicate with gods above was called a ziggurat. A ziggurat is a massive set of three stairs forming a tower connected to the temple. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included many buildings. Ziggurats were not places for public worship but rather the dwelling places of gods, with each city having a patron god. At the top of each ziggurat was a shrine, however no shrines have survived unfortunately. Practically, the ziggurat offered a high place for the priests to escape floods and also provided security. Since one could only access the temple and shrines from one of the three stairs located in the ziggurat, a small group of guards was enough protection. Its materiality consisted mainly of sun baked bricks as well as fired bricks for the outside.
Secondly, in Indian Buddhism the monumental device built in order to communicate with gods above was called a stupa. Stupas are the origin of Asian pagodas and are monumental buildings. A stupa is a hemispherical structure, containing relics, and was used mainly for meditation. It features stairways (Sopanas) similarly to the ziggurat but not on such a grand scale as there were only one or two sets instead of the three that ziggurats boast. A stupa is often surrounded by railings (Vedika) and gateways (Toranas). Stupas are mainly constructed of stone and earlier versions were constructed of baked bricks and timber. The only common material in stupas and ziggurats therefore were baked bricks.
Finally, differences in form and structure are shown by the fact that stupas are centralised designs and circular in shape, populated by columns arranged to surround the structure either in a rectangular shape or along the sides to put the focus on the space in the middle, whereas ziggurats are rectangular shapes in plan with the focal point is residing at the top of the stairs on a given side instead of directly in the middle. However, both stupas and ziggurats are surrounded by other buildings. Stupas are generally surrounded by courtyards, much like how ziggurats are surrounded by living spaces or an entire city. Both stupas and ziggurats have open spaces used to display religious artefacts. One of the main functions of both these building structures is to showcase these artefacts, be it relics or shrines. Both buildings are used as a marker of a sacred place.

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Question 3:
Compare and contrast Parthenon in Athens with Temple of Apollo in Didyma. The answer should include the main differences in style, form, and organization between a Classical temple in Greek mainland and a temple in Asia Minor.
Firstly, the Temple of Parthenon in Athens (constructed between 447-432 BC) is mainly considered to be of Doric order, although it also incorporates elements from the Ionic order into its design. The main purpose of the Temple was to hold the massive statue of Athena Parthenos (the Greek goddess of wisdom) and as a result the central area is much bigger and taller than usual, refining the front and back porches to smaller sizes. The back room was used to keep Athena’s treasure and four Ionic columns held the roof, every other column was of Doric order. There are eight columns at the front facade and seventeen at the sides.
Traditional temples in Greece were designed to be seen from the outside only, with columns spaced around to create a void centre and a view onto the statue inside. You would usually have to approach the temple from a corner, giving an oblique view of the monumental building, showing off its perfect form better. Many refinements were incorporated in the Parthenon such as making the columns slightly convex, correcting optical illusions caused by looking up at the tall columns. Upward curvature was also implemented at the base along the ends. Also, variations of column thickness were used to make corner columns thicker and intercolumniation was adjusted accordingly. It was a perfectionist design. 
Secondly, the Temple of Apollo in Didyma (constructed around 550BC) was of Ionic order entirely, unlike the Parthenon. The columns in Apollo were also much more slender, showing the Asia Minor influence. The temple of Apollo was also much grander than Parthenon, almost twice the size, with 2-3 rows of columns as opposed to just the single row in Parthenon.
The main differences arise when looking at the organisation of the temples. Whereas from the outside the Temple of Apollo looks similar to an ordinary Greek temple like the Parthenon, its interior is more unique. The inner chamber of Parthenon is built directly on top of the platform but the temple of Apollo was built around a sacred spring, so the chamber is ground level. To preserve the natural spring and the aesthetics of the temple, there are two hollow tunnels inside the temple, connecting the ground with the temple platform. The temple of Apollo also has areas with an open roof where trees were grown, whereas Parthenon is closed off entirely. The temple of Apollo also had a shrine within the shrine to hold the statue of Apollo, as opposed to holding it in the middle like in Parthenon.