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addressing is the way you address a PC, there are four methods for addressing.
MAC (Media Access Control), DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), DNS (Domain
Name System) and IP (Internet Protocol) addressing.

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address is stamped onto the network card that goes into the PC, it is there permanently
and cannot be changed. MAC addressing is in binary and cannot be understood by
a human it is used to identify network adapters on computers. The network
adapter which is plugged into a slot on the motherboard allows the computer to
connect to a network via LAN (Local Area Network) and communicate with other
computers through a physical connection. The purpose of a MAC address is to
give each computer a unique physical address or hardware address for every node
on a LAN. The address is commonly a 48-bit hexadecimal number, a normal MAC
address would look something like this 00:11:B5:A4:89:7B.


used to automatically assign IP addresses and other related configurations such
as default gateway and subnet mask to devices that request one. DHCP also
reduces the amount of network administration needed, such as giving the ability
to define TCP/IP configurations from a central location, automatically
assigning IP addresses to clients that need a frequent IP change such as
laptops and other wireless devices. DHCP is reliable because it minimises
typographical errors that can occur when a human manually types in an IP
address, it also reduces address conflicts caused by assigning the same IP
address to two or more computers at the same time. “In short, the process goes
like this: A device (the client) requests an IP address from a router (the
host), after which the host assigns an available IP address to allow the client
to communicate on the network.” (Source: https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-dhcp-2625848)


DNS is like a phone book of the internet, they uphold a
directory of domain names and translate them into IP (Internet Protocol)
addresses. This is required because unlike humans who access websites through
domain names, computers and machines access websites through IP addresses.

When you go to access a website such as https://www.youtube.com your computer checks
its local DNS cache that stores websites your computer recently visited, this
is in place to retrieve information faster. If the needed information is not
stored locally on your PC, your computer contacts your ISPs (Internet Service
Provider) DNS servers to get the information there, this usually works and the
process ends here and the information is directed to the user requesting it.
However, if the ISPs DNS servers don’t have the requested information your ISPs
DNS server asks the root nameservers, a root nameserver is a machine that
answers requests about domain names, such as IP addresses. There are 13 root
nameservers worldwide, they don’t know the answer but will direct your ISPs
query to something that knows where to find it. After the steps named above
your ISPs DNS server will send your computer a record, this record is stored
locally on your PC in your DNS cache and the IP address is sent to your browser
which opens the connection to the webserver and receives the website. This
whole process may sound sluggish but in reality, it only takes milliseconds to



Internet Protocol is the primary communications protocol in
networking, having an IP address allows your device to communicate with other
devices over an IP-based network like the internet. An IP address is used to
identify a networked device, just like a home has an address to find where to
send a letter to, a device has an address for that general purpose too. There
are a few types of IP addresses. public IP addresses, private IP addresses,
dynamic IP addresses and static IP addresses. A private address is only used
inside your network to let devices communicate in your private network these
can be assigned by the router or manually. Public IP addresses, just as the
name suggests are used in public for communicating outside of your network
these are assigned by your ISP devices use their public IP address to
communicate on public networks such as the internet. Both public and private IP
addresses are either static or dynamic, meaning that static IPs don’t change
and dynamic IPs change. There are 2 versions of IP IPv4 and IPv6, IPv4 is older
and now outdated while IPv6 is the newer upgraded version. The fundamental
difference between the two is that IPv4 can provide over 4 billion IP addresses
this sounds like a lot but in the modern era 4 billion is simply too little to
give every device in the world a unique IP. IPv6 on the other hand can give
upwards of around 2128(340000000000000) unique IP addresses. The
other difference is that IPv4 is displayed in a 32-bit numerical format such as IPv6 is displayed in hexadecimal such as 2ffh:1810:4555:9:212:f8ff:fe37:87ff.



Security is a major consideration when handling sensitive
information on a network.

Securing my network is a must, having an unsecured network
leads to variety of problems such as hackers infiltrating your network and
stealing information. To ensure my network is secure I will allow automatic
software updates to make sure any unpatched exploits are patched on all
systems. I will close all unnecessary ports, so hackers cannot use them to
establish a connection to the network. I will also configure static IP
addresses and parameters for public adapters and configure registry settings to
guarantee maximum protection. Another major threat are people accessing ports
that they shouldn’t be using, therefor I will configure port security to
restrict unauthorised MAC addresses from accessing the interface. Physical
security is also a major consideration as without it anyone can access your
servers and do whatever they want, to minimise this risk it will be wise to
lock my server in a protected cabinet, and always locking doors.




I will need a way to host a website on the internet to
manage online booking, preferably 3rd party hosting as it will be
cost effective and there will be less equipment to manage and maintain. The
website layout and code behind it will be done by using 3rd party
software this will be done to save time and avoid paying a professional web
developer thus saving money.

I will need 3 PCs and 3 tablets for each of the treatment
rooms these will be bought online and will come pre-built, also they will be
fast enough for office work but won’t be overkill. I will make sure to secure
them using passwords for PCs and biometrics for tablets. PCs will be wired
through LAN Cat 6 cables because they can handle higher speeds compared to the
Cat 5e cable. The tablets will use wireless to communicate with the file
server. The devices will be setup in a star topology.

The patient Wi-Fi will be a simple wireless access point
in the waiting room with the WAP password in text on a wall for security.

The reception PC will have to be a bit more powerful than
the treatment room PCs it will have higher specifications for more demanding

The file server will be pre-built server off Amazon, it
will be powerful enough for a medium sized business but again, won’t be
excessive it will have to have a decent processor along with around 10TB

I will make sure that all devices backup their data on a
weekly basis using windows task scheduler, I will buy 3rd party
cloud hosting that is offsite for backups such as one drive.



I will be refurbishing the client’s IT facilities.

I will begin by making an online booking service for
clients to access via the internet I will be using 3rd party
software and hosting services as its much more cost effective compared to
buying a dedicated on site server just to host a single website.

To begin I searched for a reputable domain host and website hosting service and
found https://uk.godaddy.com
this company is trusted and has affordable pricing. I’m getting “Prime” web
hosting service as its perfect for a small business, it doesn’t cost too much
and has high enough specifications to fit the amount of traffic this website
will be getting. The package also has the added bonus of a free 1 year SSL
certificate. Godaddy is also secure therefor will be harder to hack.

Secondly, I found a fitting domain name on godaddy.com
for a very affordable price “westwooddental.info” this has the company name in
it so it will be easy to remember and find for clients wanting to book
appointments online.

Thirdly I found a website design service called “Wix”
this is a free service that allows you to design a website as without needing
to know complex coding and web development. They have many free templates and
paid templates I think that this service will be more than enough to do the
job. (See images below)










I got the PCs on https://www.amazon.co.uk/ They are
refurbished and have good specifications for office work, they are relatively
future proof as they have a good processor and 8GB RAM that is more than enough
for word processing. They are affordable and cheap for what components you’re
getting. Furthermore, they are compatible with the server I chose so uploading
files to the server will be no problem. Memory expansion won’t be needed as 1TB
will most definitely be enough for office365 documents. The PCs will be secured
with a strong password and will be physically locked with a computer lock, I
will use task scheduler to make sure data is uploaded to cloud on a weekly
basis for a backup. They will be physically connected to the file server
through a Cat 6 cable in a star topology to ensure files can be uploaded and
shared quickly.

The tablets were also found on amazon and are good for
the price, they are big, so it will be no problem to access patient records quickly.
They will be secured with biometrics as this makes it easier for the dentist to
access the device and its secure. They are convenient and straight forward to
use, however, there is a security risk that comes with the convince, if one of
these tablets get stolen the thief has all the confidential information about
every single patient at the dental practice, a way to prevent theft of data is
to enable an option that wipes the drive after 6 failed biometrics or password
logon attempts.












The Wi-Fi in the waiting room will be accessed through a
wireless access point that is connected to the router, a password in text will
be put up on a wall in the waiting room, this is a very low level of security
but at least it only lets customers use the Wi-Fi. This WAP is ceiling mounted
so it will be out of sight, its affordable and does the job.

The additional PC at reception will be a bit more
powerful compared to the treatment room PCs this allows for more multi-tasking,
the PC has very good specifications. It will have a complex password and will
be physically locked, it will be connected to the file server in a star
topology with the rest of the computers. Its downside is the higher price;
however, I think its worth it as it’s the main PC.


The file server will be stored in the store behind a
locked cabinet, it will also have sticky ports enabled that allows only
authorised MAC addresses to connect to it. 
Its affordable and isn’t excessive its perfect for a small business,
however I will have to buy separate memory as its not included in this unit. It
has a good enough processor to uphold the file sharing network and the 9TB
memory will be enough for the upcoming years. I will buy 3 3.5″ 3TB hard drives
for this unit. This brings the total cost up but spending a little more money
now to make the server last a couple of years will be worth it in the long run.
I also bought 200m of Cat 6 cabling as its faster than Cat 5e and comes with
the necessary tools to do the job. (see images below)




For my backup procedure for backing up files and records
I will use windows task scheduler and make it upload files to OneDrive cloud
services. I chose OneDrive services because its reputable and secure, it has
unlimited storage capacity, so the dental practice won’t run out. It’s also got
an appealing price of £87 a year. OneDrive is managed by Microsoft, it comes
with many security features such as lockable files. The files will also be off
site, in case of a fire or some other disaster where the files get erased
there’s always a backup of them on cloud. It also has an upload limit of 15GB/s
which is more than enough for a dental practice.















My maintenance plan:

Plan type:


Maintenance cycle:


Automatic backup

Task scheduler will be activated to upload
company files to OneDrive


Performance check

Bench marking software will run and relay
information to me via email for analysis

Once a month

Hardware cleaning

I will come to clean hardware from dust.

Every 6 months

Automatic software updates

I will enable automatic software updates
and patches


Physical check-ups

I will come to the practice to examine
hardware and make sure everything works as it should

Once a year

Security analysis

I will check software and hardware security
to ensure maximum protection

Once a year