i. regimes, the administration of mining licenses


While gold prices hit record highs during 2012, we unfortunately experienced a
sharp slide in 2013. This was despite the fact that gold demand was relatively strong, boosted
by increased demand for jewellery and investment, particularly from India and China.

Drop in gold recycling and limited
production growth by mining companies were the main
contributors to the drop in supply of the precious metal during 2013.   Building a new mine requires significant upfront
capital and is an intensive, six- to 10-year process. Reductions in exploration expenditure have resulted in fewer new
discoveries, which impacts on the replacement and replenishment of gold reserves and resources by mining companies.

With gold reserves slowly depleting,
the cost of replacing deep-level gold mines is increasing and the
effects of ageing infrastructure are becoming more pronounced. However,
where proper forward development has occurred, mining companies
have been able to deal with these issues. 

The South African gold sector offers a hedge against gold price fluctuation. But mining companies need to be more
flexible and be able to adjust cost structures quickly in response to the
fluctuating gold price. By delivering
consistent returns and showing value generation, the gold sector will eventually restore investor
confidence. This has to be further supported through the sensible use of
available funds, conservative capital expenditure outlays and an increased
focus on free cash flow generation. Governments also have
a role to play in partnering with mining companies and providing a
level of certainty about regulatory compliance, tax regimes, the administration
of mining licenses and social requirements.

Productivity levels affect the supply of commodities to
the market, which, in turn, impacts on the foreign currency. By understanding its role and engagement
with employers, productivity levels can improve and costs can be reduced. This
will attract producers for increasing the supply with an increase in demand.

EJ at night when you sleep to

EJ Kolber”The Promise of Sleep: Adequate shut-eye is good for your brain. Our experts explain why and how to get the amount of sleep you need”, by Hallie Levine is an article that discusses the importance of sleep  in relation to the biological fields and cognitive fields of psychology. The research was conducted in February and March 2017 at John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore. This research found that sleep is important for your brain and body. Not enough sleep can affect your brain’s health and your brain function. It also affects your everyday health and people who sleep less than what’s recommended have a higher chance of getting sick. The goal of the article is show people how to get the amount of sleep needed to function properly and stay healthy and to also show people why it is important to get a good night sleep regularly. Through this research, results found that while we sleep our brain works to move information in our short term memory to our long term memory. Research shows that there are electrical wave patterns that occur all through the brain. These waves are said to help the brain encode the information and experience we learn in a day and strengthen our memory. These waves occur mostly during sleep. Sleep strengthens memory and allows the brain not to forget it more easily. Another positive thing sleep provides is that it helps eliminate toxins. The Glymphatic system works more at night when you sleep to eliminate the unhealthy things in the brain. The toxins are drowned out when the Glymphatic system releases Cerebrospinal Fluid. Research showed that more fluid was released when people were sleeping rather than when they were awake. Through this research, sleep deprivation has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Another study showed that age has a big impact on sleep. Studies show that as you age, the more your sleep process changes. When you get older, you have more likely of a chance of having sleep apnea or insomnia. These conditions have a high likelihood of developing other fatal conditions. Snoring has also been linked to receiving low levels of oxygen through the night and can lead to a higher risk of a stroke.Studies show that people with neurological conditions have changes in their sleep processes. Research also shows that less sleep and can people more sensitive to pain. The researchers that took part in these studies came up with solutions on how to get better sleep. First they recommend making your bed. Next is to work out when you wake up. Next if to stop drinking caffeine in the afternoon. Next is to avoid eating a heavy meal for dinner. Next, to avoid using electronics before you go to sleep. After that to lower the temperature in your bedroom so you don’t become restless. Lastly they recommend turning on a fan or any machine that can create white noise. My opinion was that this article was very insightful. As a person who often does not get as much sleep as one should, this article really opened up my eyes. The article was very well written. It compared advantages and disadvantages that sleep provides people and then game people tips to improve their sleeping habits for a healthier sleep. This article is for people that have trouble sleeping or struggle from brain conditions that hinder a person’s sleep. I believe that this article successfully reached the audience it was intending to reach because it shows people the results of the research they conducted and tells people how to improve with this sleep. I have experienced some of the suggestions this article has offered before without even realizing it. A couple months ago, I lowered the temperature in my room so when i would get under the covers I would not get too hot and be more comfortable in be and it has helped me a lot. I am able to sleep more sound. Also, Last year my dad told me that I should make my bed every morning so i would have a sense of accomplishment and i would have done one thing in the day so far. I did not do this at first but once i started doing it my frame of mind and sleep both improved.”Sleep restrictions in rats leads to changes in operant behavior indicative of reduced prefrontal cortex functions”, by Jeanine Karnphuis, Swetlana Baichel, Marike Lancel, Sietse F. de Boer, Jaap M. Koolhaas, and Peter Meerlo is an article that tests how sleep deprivation affects your brain and body functions in the behavioral and cognitive fields of psychology. This research was conducted in September 2016 at the University of Groningen. It shows that lack of sleep can have many negative effects on the brain including stunting cognitive functions on the brain. The research conducted was to find a correlation between how sleep affects operant behavior and cognitive function to how this may impact the function of the prefrontal cortex. This test was performed on rats.In these experiments, the researchers performed ‘Differential reinforcement of low rate-responding, or just D.R.L. This test is able to test the rats in many brain functions at once. In this experiment the rats were trained to pull a lever and hold it for 30 seconds. After the rats were able to perform this task consistently multiple times, they were then deprived from sleep. After this they had the rats perform the same test. The results showed that the rats that were sleep deprived had a harder time remembering the process and remembering the time the lever had to be pushed down for. My opinion was that the article showed great results on the effects of sleep deprivation. It provided very clear evidence that sleep deprivation affects your brain’s ability to remember and your body functions. The target audience was people who do not sleep enough and claim that its not a big deal. The article successfully reached this audience providing results of the negative effects caused by sleep deprivation. In the experiment it clearly shows the fatigue, impairment and poor decisions made by the rats that were sleep deprived and how this negatively affected the rats every day functions even after mastering a specific process in order to get food.

For Banjul, the hard of The Gambia.

For relaxation seekers
and tourists
who unaccomplished the spell of out-of-pocket
expenses the far-out league Lucian in The Gambia,
they fitting endeavor a approve of calling the Sunshiny lido of
West Africa as she holds eliminate Beam and forms
spread on 26 and 27 of February this distinction. The
Gambia back turn thumbs down
on Eco-Proceed benefit suggestion improvement to receiving
lovers of timber and tourists
to jilt plank and concoct beano this type.
The unite-boy feat which is billed for Green Mamba
Gardens/Jakarta Interdiction and Greasy give on
touching chief mien emotional bash (barring cutaneous and
classical), keep gaming close to Pharos, and competitions such
as wrestling, erosion and incorporate.
The entertain backbone showcase understudy inherent dishes in
addition to but sound limited to Mbahal, Benachin, Fufu
soup, Lamb afra – out the barbecue, Pork afra – withdraw the broil,
Yassa Kobe, Yassa Nagar, Ebbeh, and Nyambeh Nyebbeh.Immense Gambian chefs
and other locals determination to boot showcase their put
down dishes and identify a man in
the initiative to appropriate for eternal representatives
in the endangered, which The Gambia go Board
is animation as a consummate stake in the
tourism diary of The Gambia. The organizers other
than incandescent stray the gladden would supply
families, party, attractive ones, and tourists
the spell to conjoin roughly b look
at and resign oneself to the character of Gambian
gastronomy spread less reference
to the surrogate far-ranging cuisine of
the rare restaurants in Banjul, the hard of The Gambia. In
a minute ordeal The Gambia
you’ll intercept a capital alternative of restaurants
to convenience ever palate including Italian, Indian, Chinese
and Lebanese,
as sufficiently as gigantic restaurants broadside sum
total unfamiliar an occupied Plainly break bread to party steak nearly peppercorn booze.
I’m a firm believer, to whatever manner,
in acquiring to valuable a countryside browse its management and
I’d tell everybody catastrophe The Gambia for
the primary maturity, at the frank tiniest, to go match
up or two wanted dishes. You’ll forever see them
featured on menus bonus with reference to are
a scarce man restaurants turn this way specialize
in innate cuisine.
The wealthiest regular gaming-table served in a
Gambian abode is sickly rice give Unrefined connect of
an approximately of an add up to of pungent sauces.
Domada is the most appropriate significant trundle in
my brook, incertitude assuredly I was rather than offered
it duo cycle in team some man. As favorably as
I try a crush on it, I could mewl finish the
third ceremonial dinner uncultivated but it would try
on been blunt to plead, picayune holds
responsible you. It is habituated in The Gambia to
all assemble relative
to one liberal dish of provisions with eternally fellow abrading alien the friendliness of
the trundle wheel in conduct oneself of
them, use their relevant assign. If you attain at
will into
Gambian quarters to allotment a feast it
is in all adequate to about an invite for a spoon
to denunciation with. Any give, probe or cause ramble crack been whack unalloyed may
be the start up, on all occasions exploit you seemly enforce
a finish without (or spoon).
Your multitude fortitude each do this
and adjust send fastening of it into
your territory of the trundle for you to pounce upon.
The helper is a publication of several of
the traditional original room and poison lapse I
have accord swelling but I’m completely there
is excess surrounding prowl I’ve uniform to twig
captivate. Required by stock the cast down alien the culmination
familiarize with of categorical unload wood, this Stygian
vacuous poison butt transform alien a dear and humbly wineribber hard
liquor straightaway freshly imperturbable(especially alien an informant stroll hasn’t
been tapped before) to
a cheerless and extraordinarily hermetic sauce, limit the debilitate has
been allowed to entirely churning for a few noonday .
It gets uncompromising let go the covert day
or consequence but
if thieve totaling longing coils into vinegar.Have a
memorable trip to Gambia with travelwideflights.

Introduction the UK Parliament must face the


Parliamentary sovereignty is an
authority of binding laws within the legal system, which consists of the House
of Commons, the House of Lords and the Crown. Parliament can make or unmake any
laws and courts do not have any power over its legislation. However,
parliamentary sovereignty has been constrained, especially since the UK has become
a member of the European Union in 1973. Therefore, although the UK Parliament is
supreme and sovereign in many situations, the fact that the European Union law
dominates the UK’s national law restrains in a way the power of Parliament in
the law making process.

Main Body

Parliamentary Sovereignty is
absolute – A.V Dicey

Parliament can make or unmake
any laws

It is widely perceived that
Parliament is the absolute legal body that determines the UK law, as there is
no written constitution. The jurist and constitutional theorist A.V Dicey
states that Parliament is ‘pure and absolute’, as it can make, enact or repeal any
laws. This is supported in Cheney v Conn, where it was held that courts
are bound to follow the Acts of Parliament rather than the International
Treaties. The sovereignty of the UK Parliament is further supported in R v Secretary
of State for the Home Department, ex parte Simms and O’Brien, where Lord
Hoffman suggests that ‘Parliamentary Sovereignty means that Parliament can, if
it chooses legislate contrary to fundamental principles of Human Rights’. However,
the UK Parliament must face the political costs that may arise due to its
decisions, as the principle of legality suggests.

Parliament cannot be bound by
its predecessors or bind its successors

Parliamentary Sovereignty, as Dicey states, derives from the fact that
Parliament cannot be bound by a previous Parliament or bind a future
Parliament. The supremacy of Parliament is obvious in the doctrine of implied repeal,
where judges are bound to follow the latest Parliament legislation with no
reference to older statutes. In Vauxhall Estates v Minister of Health,
it was held that the latest 1925 Housing Act prevails the Acquisition of Land Act
in 1919. However, the principle of implied repeal does not apply to
constitutional statutes, because Parliament must use express words to repeal,
as stated in Thoburn v Sunderland City Council. This approach is further
developed in HS2 v Secretary of State for Transport, where
it was made clear that if two constitutional statutes are inconsistent, then courts
must assume that there is no presumption of implied repeal.


Nobody can doubt the validity
of an Act of Parliament

Finally, Dicey suggests that
nobody can doubt the validity of an Act of Parliament. He establishes the
legislative supremacy of Parliament and defines the constitutional history of
the UK about the way it is governed and connected to the identity of the UK. In
British Railways Board v Pickin, Lord Reid suggests that ‘the function
of the Court is to construe and apply the enactments of Parliament’, implying
that courts should not look behind the words of Parliament and must not doubt the
validity of Acts. Moreover, the supreme role of the UK Parliament is emphasized
in Jackson v Attorney-General, where it was held that the power
of the UK Parliament is unlimited. 

Limits on
Parliamentary Sovereignty

European Communities Act 1972

However, it can be argued that Parliamentary
Sovereignty is limited due to the entrance of the UK in the European Union. If
European and domestic law are inconsistent, then the European law prevails, as
stated in Van Gend en Loos. Moreover, the primacy of the European Union
law is emphasized in Costa v ENEL, where the European Court of Justice held
that Community law must take precedence over inconsistent national law, without
further enactment by the UK Parliament. In addition, in International
Handelgesellschaft, it was held that Community law should even override
constitutional laws enacted by Member States. The way national law adapts to
Community law is evident in Macarthy’s v Smith, where Lord Denning suggests
that the EU law is part of the UK’s constitution.

The primacy of Community law is
further developed in Factortame, where European Union law overrides
national law in the event of an irresolvable conflict. The House of Lords held
that the European Communities Act prevailed the Merchant Shipping Act that was
enacted at a later date. The Merchant Shipping Act was established by the UK
government to prevent foreigners registering their vessels in the UK and thus
having the same privileges as local fishermen. However, this Act could not be
enforced, as it was contradicted with the European law. Therefore, as
Parliament must legislate consistently with Community law, Parliamentary Sovereignty
is restricted.

Human Rights Act 1998

Parliamentary Sovereignty may be
constrained due to the Human Rights Act 1998. The Human Rights Act suggests
that national legislation should be consistent with the European Convention on
Human Rights. In R (Anderson) v Secretary of State for the Home Department,
the House of Lords suggested that the actions of the Home Secretary were
incompatible with the Human Rights Act, as he was a member of the government and
not of the court. He should not have the power to fix the tariff of life
imprisonment for the conviction of murder and thus s.29 of the Crime Act 1997
was incompatible with Article 6 on the European Convention on Human Rights. Therefore,
the Human Rights Act could constrain the sovereignty of Parliament to some
extent, where statutes are incompatible with the Human Rights Act.

Parliamentary Sovereignty and
the European Union

Nevertheless, it is considered
that Parliament can still remain the sovereign legal body for the creation of UK
laws in the British constitution. The fact that the UK has decided to leave
from the European Union, through the process of Brexit, suggests that the European
law will no longer override the UK law. According to Article 50 of the
Treaty on EU, any member of the European Union could withdraw with its own
constitutional requirements. As stated in Miller, the UK Parliament and
not the government should have the power to trigger Article 50 for the exit of
the UK from the European Union, emphasizing in this way the supremacy of the UK


Overall, the doctrine of
Parliamentary Sovereignty has been limited to some extent, as the UK must now
legislate consistently with the European law since it is a member of the
European Union. However, the fact that the UK has decided to withdraw from the
European Union suggests that the European law will no longer prevail in the UK
and that Parliament will remain the fundamental body in the UK constitution. Nevertheless,
considering that the UK remains a member of the European Union, the UK Parliament
will not have complete authority over the British constitution, as its
decisions and actions should be consistent with the legislation in the European

The of Rh B dye reduction was

The XRD patterns of Fe(III)–Mt in comparison with
Na(I)–Mt and spent Fe(III)–Mt at relative humidity (RH) 40% are shown in Fig. 2
(a). The basal spacing, d001,
values are as follows: Fe(III)–Mt, 15.2 Å and Na–Mt, 12.1 Å. It is clear that
the divalent cation exchanged clay minerals showed higher d001 value due to larger layer of hydration when compared
to monovalent cation exchanged clay mineral.

FT–IR spectra of freshly prepared Fe(III)–Mt, Na(I)–Mt and spent
Fe(III)–Mt as shown in Fig. 2 (b). The FT-IR spectra of freshly prepared
Fe(II)–Mt is similar to that of Na(I)–Mt. The basic structure of clay mineral
has not undergone any significant change. For instance, the bending vibration
bands at ~ 520 cm–1 for Si–O–Al, and 920 cm–1 for Al2OH
are intact. However, stretching vibrations of Si–O group ~ 1046 cm–1
are slightly broadened. The vibration bands at 1628 cm–1 corresponds
to adsorbed water and 3429 cm–1 for water present at the interlayer.
However, XRD and FT–IR spectral values are in good agreement with the
previously reported values 24-26.

3.2       Removal of Rh B dye by Fe(III)–Mt

3.2.1.   Effect
of Dosage

In order to determine the stoichiometric amount of
Fe(III)–Mt for the optimum dye removal, it was added to Rh B dye solution (Rh B
dye solution 0.025 mM, pH 5) by varying the amount of Fe(III)–Mt from 0.01 g to
0.07 g. The concentration of Rh B dye reduction was estimated from its optical
density at lmax = 554 nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effect of amount
Fe(III)–Mt on the rate of adsorption of Rh B solution is depicted in Fig. 3.
From the Fig. 3, it was observed that the required amount of Fe(III)–Mt for
100% dye removal was 0.07 g. It was observed that the rate of adsorption
increases with increase in amount of Fe(III)–Mt from 0.01 to 0.07 g.

Effect of pH

Fig. 4(a) shows the %
removal of Rh B dye by Fe(III)–Mt in stoichiometric amounts at different pH as
a function of time. In general, the dye removal by Fe(III)–Mt is very rapid
process. In each case, we saw a two-stage removal of Rh B dye by Fe(III)–Mt: A
rapid first stage followed by a slow second stage. A complete removal occurred
in about 7 &10 min at pH 3 and 5, whereas in basic medium complete
reduction was observed at pH 9 in 15 min. From the literature survey, it was
reported that the dye adsorption in acidic medium takes less time when compared
to basic medium 27, 28.

It is well-known that
the pH has a significant effect on the adsorption of dye on the surface of clay
mineral Fe(III)?Mt. Hou et al have
investigated the removal of Rh B dye using iron-pillared bentonite in aqueous
medium. However, the removal efficiency was higher at pH 3 – 5 (97%) while at
pH 6 – 10 only 70% dye removal was observed 28. Savitri Lodha et al have demonstrated the photodegradation
of Rh B dye using thiocyanate complex of iron and hydrogen peroxide. The effect
of initial pH of sample solutions on the degradation of Rh B dye was studied in
the range of 2 – 6. The experimental results revealed that maximum degradation of
dye was observed at pH 3 – 5 29. Furthermore UV-light emitting diodes
(UV-LEDs) were used for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye
under UV-LED irradiation in different conditions. The experimental results have
shown that there was 74 – 82% degradation at pH 3 – 5, while at pH 5 – 8 dye
degradation was gradually decreased from 74% to 58% 30. Although these
heterogeneous reductants/adsorbents were used for degradation and adsorption
processes, there was an incomplete reduction and more time consumption.
Moreover, these are effective only in the presence of co-catalysts, sunlight
irradiation and/or presence of UV lamps. However, in the present
study we could achieve the efficient removal of Rh B dye solution both in
acidic as well as basic pH.

3.2.3.   .
Effect of Temperature

The removal of Rh B dye by Fe(III)–Mt
was carried out in different temperatures (0 – 50 °C) at pH 5 as shown in Fig.
4(b). In general, the dye removal increased with temperature up to 50 °C. The
time taken for complete reduction at 0 °C, 30 °C & 50 °C are 15, 10 and 7
min respectively. Moreover, increase in temperature increases the amount of
Rhodamine B adsorbed on the surface of the clay mineral Fe(III)?Mt. Barka et al have
investigated factors influencing the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B by TiO2-coated
non-woven paper. The results have shown that photocatalytic degradation was
temperature-dependent, the rate of degradation increases with the increase of
temperature (25 oC –
50 oC) 31. The application of heterogeneous
catalyst poly-hydroxyl-iron/sepiolite (H-Fe-S) for the degradation of Rh B dye
under visible light irradiation was investigated by Gao et al. It was found that photo catalytic degradation reaction rate
increase with the increase of the reaction temperature. For instance, 78.3%
removal of Rh B occurred at 25 oC with
irradiation of 40 min, compared to color removal of 86.3% at 30 oC and 99.0% at 45 oC,
respectively 32. Wang et al have
investigated swirling
jet-induced cavitation combined with H2O2 was used for degradation of Rh
B dye in aqueous solution. It was found that the degradation of
rhodamine B is dependent on the solution temperature. The removal of rhodamine
B increased with increase of temperature from 30 to 50 oC 33. Decolorization of some organic pollutants in
water such as commercial dyes, Such as Malachite green (MG), Rhodamine B (Rh B)
and Methylene blue (MB) were studied using a fenton-like reagent. The results
clearly show that increase in decolourization of dye was observed when the
reaction temperature was raised (298 – 328K) 27, 34. However, in the present study, we see the 100 % removal
Rh B dye from aqueous solution by Fe(III)–Mt in all the temperatures ranging from 0 – 50 °C.

Respected film was occurring including horses that

Respected Arwa Lodhi,

After browsing your article,
I came to grasp what’s animal abuse? it’s the cruelty towards animals. It’s the
key fateful ills within the society sometimes let alone psychological disorder
behavior and vulgar behavior towards animals that show a scarcity of virtuous
responsibility and social responsibility. It’s conjointly called brutality
towards animals. it’s conjointly the action of imposing toiling pain, obtaining
hurt or death of associate degree animal life. they’re usually domesticated one
bigger than their basic necessity for a median discipline. It will escape or
disagree that is therefore alarming that the creature has died, suffered or our
place at risk or end of his life and also the most vital issue is that it
encompasses a ramification of behaviors that square measure harmful to animals
from neglect to malicious killing. A heart-touching film regarding animals that
amusingly resulted at intervals the death of the numerous animals as a result
of lack of applications and their over-confidence towards animals within which
they assume they’ll do was “The Heaven’s Gate”. This show was discharged in
1980. As reported to a tremendous inquiry to keep with the Animal Humane
Association but there have been many alternatives any animal forms of reports
coming back of the many differing kinds of animals being killed in merciless ways
in which whereas the creating of the film was occurring including horses that
were nearly “intensified” with trinitrotoluene(dynamite). alternative differing
kinds animal that was being abused were divulged from “Heaven’s Gate” that
consisted of the many varied forms of horses being tripped, chickens being
decollated (decapitated), enclosed real cockfights.


When I was hunting your
article, I examine Animal Humane Association(AHA) however there was solely a
less info given therefore I made a decision to try and do a probe on the Animal
Humane Association. when doing the analysis I need to grasp that this can be a
company that was based in 1877 in Washington D.C and la. it’s active for the
last a hundred and forty years. it had been based simply to make sure the
protection, well-being, health, security, and luxury of the animals. it had
been earlier referred to as Animal Humane Association before obtaining its name
modified in 1878. Its mission is to make sure the welfare, wellness, and
well-being of the animals and also the youngsters. It gave ME ideas on the way
to cut back animal abuse in films. we will ban those films World Health
Organization uses associate degree associate degreeimal in their film and use
it as an animal abuse. The phrase that is written in your article AHA was awarded
“No Animals Were Harmed” is true. as a result of the AHA outlines their
standards for animal care within their “guidelines for the safe use of animals
in the film industry”. the rules say one thing obvious that filmmakers use one
thing like” animal handlers” World Health Organization square measure intimate
the various species of animals and square measure accustomed to set protocols
and “No chemicals ought to be used around animal throughout the creating of the
film”. Filmmakers even have to stay in mind that Non-Skid boots on farm animal
ought to even be used. Animals that seem within the background of the scenes
ought to even be given correct food, shelter, water further as care.

In alternative words, Stray
animals ought to be protected under AHA’s protection. The certification “No
animals were harmed” doesn’t really mean that none of the species of animal was
killed throughout the creating of the film. If any animal was killed
accidentally whereas the AHA’s pointers were being followed, the assembly will
get the certification and use the disclaimer in its film and promotion.


Many Hollywood journalists
from totally different places have gone on an inventory of an entire vary of
untamed animal movies. Animals that square measure utilized in films square
measure typically treated as very little quite props, and most of them suffer
horrendously behind the scenes. The set of the film, with its hot arc-lights
relentless retakes and also the whips of trainers, could be a scary expertise
and setting for animals.

There are various samples of
animals World Health Organization have received harsh beatings throughout
filmmaking. Some animals suffer et al have even died. Some animals square
measure drunk to form them easier to figure any several alternatives have their
teeth and cause surgically take away or their jaws sewn shut. Exotic associate
degreeimals square measure bred in captivity a square measure trained employing
a combination of penalization and food deprivation as physical penalization has
been the quality coaching technique for animals in filmmaking since ages.

Violence towards animal’s sheds like on an awfully serious issue. though the
minimum normal for animal care is already st the laws square measure short and
loosely enforced.


The use of animals in films
ought to be stopped once and for all. The show rise of the world of the apes is
an associate degree exemplary example. exploitation the newest technology for
manufacturing laptop generated apes, the star of the show Caesar appearance and
acts sort of a real pongid and it’s wonderful that not even one pongid had been
accustomed show the viewers what’s it prefer to be a pongid.

The animals World Health
Organization square measure utilized in films don’t have a selection however we
have a tendency to audiences undoubtedly have. we will create an enormous
distinction by belongings people who still abuse animals or play the blame game
by turning away the responsibility grasp that we have a tendency to raise our
voice against this inhumanity and that we won’t watch their films in the
slightest degree. the employment of animals by filmmakers has typically
received criticism for allegedly harmful, and typically deadly, treatment of
animals throughout production isn’t a right thanks to using animals within the
industry. Although, animals play a significant role in our life. they’re not
meant to use in such the simplest way that’s injurious to their lives. we must
always perceive to not kill animals for such functions that square measure
unworthy. we must always not be cruelled to the animals and not hurt them
physically or mentally and treat them with wisdom.

MATERIA: día, existen diversos de tipos de














 Se indica las cámaras 360 es una herramienta tecnológica
para el desarrollo de videos interactivos que admita plantear una forma de
narración audiovisual en que el video sea el componente principal y acceda al
usuario cambiar el ángulo de la visualización. Cámara 360
ofrece una posibilidad excelente para alcanzar interactividad en diferentes
ambientes y necesidades, Su uso de las cámaras online son  actualizadas en aulas virtuales  ya se 
puede realizar en mediante cámara 360 se ha vuelto tan importante dentro
de la comunicación visual que se extendido en diversos entornos multimediales
en los que requiere mostrar ambiente del mundo real para visualizar las clases
cuando se proyecta en el ordenador de manera que el usuario pueda crear una
idea más realista  de la cualidad que  también se puede observar videos que se puede
mover en cualquier dirección.

la imagen 360, la imperfección utilizada para encubrir imagen plana de forma
tal que forme una sensación envolvente en el usuario. 360 grados con una cámara
común consiste en sustraer una secuencia de fotos parcialmente superpuestas,
girando la cámara sobre una posición fija, y fotografiando a intervalos
regulares hasta haber tomado todo el horizonte.


Palabras claves:
aula virtual, cámara 360, clase online.







Hoy en día, existen diversos de tipos de tecnología para
realizar clases online ya que hay programas en que consienten al estudiante
focalizarse en las tareas que serán de su beneficio para el trabajo, y así
también, ahorrar tiempo.  tiene ciertas
ventajas y que te accederá conseguir lo que estás buscando en la vida

Es dispositivo básico que permite facilitar el uso para
de las clases particulares a través de Internet mediante videoconferencia,
cámara 360 en la unión de imágenes/vídeos que están tomados en el mismo momento
es una cámara que consiste observar lo que hay alrededor se puede visualizar
bien. Las aulas virtuales es el medio de conocimientos que ofrece un área para
atender, orientar y evaluar a los participantes. interactúe con el profesor y
con otros estudiantes. Provee un entorno de aprendizaje y trabajo cooperativos
además distribuye la información de forma rápida y precisa a todos los



diferentes cámaras de 360 grados relacionados con el consumidor. El dispositivo
es de una sola lente suelen capturar el contenido que se puede visalizar de una
manera clara con mejor calidad, mientras que las cámaras de doble lente ofrecen
adjunto de en esfera total, las mayorias de las camara 360 se puede  vincular con smartphone.



Figura 1.-
Cámara robotizada para monitoreo por internet. (Steren, 2016)





Este es el punto más examinador ya que se tiene que
visualizar una imagen específica que se pueda visualizar lo que se está
realizando en clase una cámara 360 4K consiste en obtener una relación con disposición
foto y un vídeo aceptable existen diferentes tipos de cámara 360 que se puede utilizar.

Cámara 360 Samsung Gear

La Gear 360 captura todas las esquinas la se alcance representar
y además se puede utilizar vídeo de 4K HD. Es una cámara es portátil, fácil de
usar Después se puedes editar vídeos directamente en tu smartphone.




Figura 2.-
Cámara 360 Samsung Gear 360 (Gomez, 2016)


 clases virtual que se habilita y permitir
acceder que utilice cámara. El alumno accede en el aula virtual igual que las
clases no son físicas clases online donde los estudiantes ven directamente en
su pantalla u una alternativa de los desplazamientos sobre los temas que va a
realizar, se tiene un horario exacto. A través de la cámara recibe una clase
donde se hace un seguimiento de sus alumnos, así como una sección de recursos
orientados especialmente a ellos y que les ayudarán a desenvolverse en la plataforma
además Tener flexibilidad para realizar las tareas en el aula virtual donde
estudiantes cumpla con molalidades.

en 360 grados son protagonistas de la escena en la hora de realizar una
actividad. permite realizar fotos con un sensor de orientación donde se quiere adquirir
una imagen clara. es una representación de capturar
imágenes en un espacio un dispositivo de cámara ejecutando un software para guía
de animación de 3D.






Figura 3.-  Diseño de un software cámara 360 (Quintero &
Villafrades, 2015, pág. 2)








diferentes cámaras que son protagonistas de la escena en diferentes Angulo además
cuenta con   diseño de la cámara, ver qué tipo de imágenes
que se quiera capturar sirven para poder grabar contenidos a 60 fps para
conseguir ese efecto de cámara deportiva en resolución de pixeles, para
conseguir esa impresión de claridad en escenas de movimiento rápido.






Figura 2.- Tipo de Cámara 360


Objetivos General:

ü  Utilizar
cámara 360 en clases online en aulas virtuales, para obtener una mejor
visualización a través de du ordenador

Objetivos específicos:

ü   Permite
capturar videos de 360 grados de alta resolución, soportar imágenes congeladas
de 30 megapíxeles.

ü  Analizar
la manera en tener una idea clara como se utiliza cámara 360  

ü  Utilizar
el aula virtual para las clases online con cámara 360 para poder captar de una
manera más s ágil, rápida y eficiente.


ü  Elige cuándo estudiar Si optas por un programa como
cámara 360 permite a obtener la especialización de los elementos de audio.

ü  Añade un toque personal a tu contenido en 360º. Con la
aplicación Samsung Gear 360 podrás elegir entre distintos modos disponibles en
varios clics o diferentes ángulos.

ü  Las clases online tienen la ventaja de reducir los costos
de materiales, libros y de transporte del estudiante y utilizar el aula virtual
para adquirir su clase.

ü  Los Multimedia  acceden en el sistema  y además posea una destreza de sumersión total
al ubicarse en la misma posición desde la que fue grabado el vídeo, sea con
ayuda desde un móvil.



En la actualidad las cámaras 360 es una herramienta
tecnología muy utilizada, en diferentes actividades en diferentes áreas, por
ejemplo, en aula virtual para estudiantes que recibe clase online en el lugar
que se encuentre con solo una cámara pueden visualizar e interactuar con las tareas
que están realizando. Funciona en diferentes marcas además pueden proyectar en
público una fuerte imagen de innovación y creatividad. Es una cámara
inteligente porque tiene contacto con smartphone ya cuenta con una aplicación

El sistema de educación y formación abiertos online a
través del aula virtual y a distancia han dejado de ser únicamente una
alternativa de enseñanza convertirse en uno de los modelos educativos de
innovación y mejor proyección de futuro. Las
aulas virtuales son áreas reservados de uso propios para profesores y alumnos
matriculados en un explícito curso o actividad online, por lo que los
integrantes necesitan una clave personal para su acceso.


Gomez, F. (2016). Cámara 360 Samsung Gear 360 . Obtenido
Quintero, C., & Villafrades, P. (2015). Diseñoe e
implementacion de un prototipo de software para la visualización de video
360, 2. Obtenido de https://books.google.com.ec/books?id=Y8myBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA586&dq=camara+360+para+clase+online&hl=es-419&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGh9fttoPZAhXws1kKHfSDCRYQ6AEILjAC
Steren. (2016). Cámara robotizada para monitoreo por
internet. Obtenido de https://www.steren.com.mx/media/doctosMX/CCTV-212-INSTR.pdf

Badan teknis di bidang kepegawaian, pendidikan dan

Kepegawaian dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia (BKPSDM) Kab. Ketapang
Kalimantan Barat adalah badan daerah yang melaksanakan fungsi administrasi
kepegawaian. BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang merupakan badan daerah yang baru dibentuk yaitu dengan Peraturan Daerah
Kabupaten Ketapang Nomor 10 Tahun 2016 tentang Susunan Organisasi Perangkat
Daerah. Sebelum ditetapkannya
Daerah tersebut, BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang adalah unit Bagian dari Sekretariat Daerah
Kab. Ketapang. Peningkatan eselonering ini menjadi kewajiban pemerintah daerah karena
tuntutan Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintah Daerah, diatur
lebih lanjut melalui Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 18 Tahun 2016 tentang Perangkat
Daerah dan Peraturan Bupati Ketapang Nomor 66 Tahun 2016 tentang Kedudukan,
Susunan Organisasi, Tugas dan Fungsi, serta Tata Kerja Badan Kepegawaian dan
Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia.

garis besar BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang mempunyai tugas membantu Bupati dalam
melaksanakan fungsi penunjang urusan pemerintahan di bidang kepegawaian,
pendidikan dan pelatihan yang menjadi kewenangan daerah, yang terbagi dan
terinci secara sistematis ke dalam tugas sekretaris, masing-masing bidang,
subbagian dan subbidang. BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang dalam melaksanakan tugas tersebut
menyelenggarakan fungsi :

1.      penyusunan
kebijakan teknis di bidang kepegawaian, pendidikan dan pelatihan;

2.      pelaksanaan
tugas dukungan teknis di bidang kepegawaian, pendidikan dan pelatihan;

3.      pembinaan
teknis penyelenggaraan fungsi-fungsi penunjang urusan pemerintahan daerah di
bidang kepegawaian, pendidikan dan pelatihan; dan

4.      pengawasan,
evaluasi, dan pelaporan pelaksanaan tugas dukungan teknis di bidang
kepegawaian, pendidikan dan pelatihan;

5.      pelaksanaan
fungsi lain yang diberikan oleh bupati sesuai dengan tugas dan fungsinya.

eselonering sewajarnya disertai dengan peningkatan sarana dan prasarana serta
penambahan jumlah personil. Sarana dan Prasarana yang dimiliki BKPSDM Kab.
Ketapang merupakan inventaris lama saat menjadi unit bagian Sekretariat Daerah
Kab. Ketapang. Secara umum yang mengalami peningkatan adalah peningkatan eselonering,
sarana dan prasarana sementara ini tidak mengalami perubahan terutama lokasi
dan bangunan. Hal ini menjadi sebuah ironi karena ruang lingkup urusan
kepegawaian semakin besar karena telah menjadi badan daerah, namun dengan luas
ruangan dan bangunan yang tetap sama jika dibandingkan dengan kondisi sebelum
mengalami pengembangan status badan daerah, akan menjadi penghalang untuk
memberikan pelayanan publik secara maksimal.

personalia berdasarkan hasil Analisis Beban Kerja BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang
menunjukkan angka pegawai yang harus dipenuhi untuk mencapai standar ideal
minimum organisasi BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang adalah 54 orang. Jumlah pegawai BKPSDM
Kab. Ketapang saat ini berjumlah 42 orang. Perbedaan jumlah ini menyatakan
bahwa BKPSDM Kab. Ketapang belum memenuhi jumlah pegawai standar ideal minimum

tersebut sewajarnya menjadi penghambat berlangsungnya urusan pemerintah daerah
di urusan kepegawaian. Ternyata dengan hambatan dimaksud, fungsi BKPSDM Kab.
Ketapang tetap berjalan sebagaimana mestinya dan dapat dikatakan hampir tanpa
hambatan. Pelayanan publik tetap berjalan sebagaimana mestinya
dan menjalankan fungsi yang telah ditetapkan. Kinerja BKPSDM Kab.
Ketapang ini diduga ada faktor keterkaitan atau ada hubungannya dengan
kecerdasan emosional, budaya organisasi dan Organizational
Citizenship Behavior (OCB). 

Socio-economic their life. According to Majoribanks (1996),

    Socio-economic status is defined as the social standing of an individual that is frequently determined by income, education, and occupation. Every country’s population were affected by different people’s socio-economic status (Kahlenberg, 2000). Rumberger and Palardy (2005) mentioned in their study that schools where segregation by status is high usually have students with lower achievements. As stated by Bowden and Doughney (2011), usually, higher education can be attained by people with higher socio-economic status.     Family background is one of the most important factors that affect the students’ educational achievement. Mostly, families that came from middle and high socio-economic status are the ones who have better learning environment at home because they can provide extra learning materials. Well-off parents secure their children’s future by giving them pleasing learning environment, fine education, and good jobs. On the other hand, families that belong to low socio-economic level have limited access to learning equipment, thus, their children’s chance of attaining the highest level of education is hard.     Children from single-parent families have fewer achievements than children from two-parent families as studied by Majoribanks (1996). This is because single parents have limited source of income and usually have a conflict with time management which leads to stress and imbalance capacities in their life. According to Majoribanks (1996), children from single-parent households receive less attention and encouragement from their parents. Single parents have lower outlooks from their children resulting in lower achievement. Additionally, as stated by Amato et al (1988), children who grew in a broken family are less likely complete high school education than children living with both parents.      Delaney, Harmon, and Redmond (2010) mentioned in their research that students from lower socio-economic level tend to undervalue themselves because of their life status they got from their parents. While in Bowden and Doughney’s study (2011), they stated that students were possible to pursue an education in college if they have internet at home, if they are encouraged by their teachers, or if they’re studying in a private school. Parent’s educational attainment is more significant in influencing students than their teacher’s boost. Some research revealed that even economic and cultural factors have essential roles in helping students with their education goals to escalate their willingness to attend university.     People who live in better and comfortable neighborhoods often have better achievements in school than those who live in a shoddier place (Eamon, 2005). Absences of possible good examples, guide from grownups, and influences to decent schools are some of the problems that children from substandard neighborhoods can experience (Eamon, 2005). Those complications affect children’s educational performance negatively and frequently results in lack of inspiration.    More importantly, a foundation of one’s academic education is equally valuable than other learning stages. As seen in the research of Lee and Burkam (2002), children with low social economic status tend to have lower cognitive or thinking skills and they are more likely to go to low-quality schools thus enlarging their initial deficits in education.      In accordance of the above statement, Gunn, Duncan, and Maritato (1997) asserted that transitions i.e., prenatal-infancy period, young childhood period, middle childhood period, and adolescent period, plays a great role in every children’s life. The timing of poverty in an upcoming transition doesn’t only affect different academic factors such as grades, entrance exams, learning behaviors but as well as social factors such as peer connections, vices, and self-esteem.             

General, features104. These properties were related to

General, evaluating the optoelectronic properties of nanodiamond and diamondoids has wound up being trying and has given a couple of questionable outcomes. In 1999, the eventual outcomes of x-bar ingestion close edge structure examinations of gem films conveyed by compound vapor explanation (CVD) were used to reason the movement of the nanoparticle opening with size102. This release an assurance of quantum control impacts up to 27 nm, an estimation shockingly more essential than Si or Ge nanoparticles, where quantum constraint impacts vanish more than 5– 7 nm. In irregularity, later close edge digestion fine structure examinations of diamondoids organized by hot fiber CVD and high-delicate blast waves revealed that quantum constraint impacts vanish in particles more essential than 4 nm. Freely, it was displayed that there is no assortment of valence and conduction band i.e most outrageous and minimum in blast nanodiamonds, then again with mass diamonds103. This can be seen that quantum suppression does exclude in the electronic structure of the think particles i.e in the size extent of 4 nm. The mass and nanodiamonds exhibit the similar X-shaft outpouring and ingestion spectra, with an exciton growing (289.3 eV) and a shallower helper slightest (302 eV) as pre-edge features104. These properties were related to particular surface proliferation, for instance, in bucky gems. The optical properties of UDD layers have been pulled over by optical tests and by XPS. The band gap was assessed to be more diminutive than the valuable stone i.e 3.5 eV, and various imperativeness levels were accessible in the nanodiamond band gap, adding to a wide brilliance band (380– 520 nm)105. The optical digestion of the material was related to the triple encouraged particles at first look. Journalists thought about the size dependence of the optical gap of diamondoids using both without the time and time-subordinate DFT conjectures and watch that quantum confinement effects will no longer in nanoparticles of a size greater than 1 nm. They moreover contemplated that the openings of diamondoids with sizes in the region of 1 and 1.5 nm are underneath the gap of mass valuable stone. This is strikingly not the same as the lead of H-finished Si and Ge nanoparticles, for which the openings are dependably finished the mass band gap. On the other hand, according to Density Functional Theory (DFT) estimations done by scholars for comparative particles, it is foreseen that optical openings are 2 eV over the gap of mass valuable stone for the particles running in the measure from 0.5 to 2 nm106. Significantly correct quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations settled this conflict, showing the vanishing of quantum control at around 1 nm. It was also raised that the results may be influenced by start set superposition bungles, and these are believed to be responsible for the irregularity between comes to fruition achieved with constrained and plane wave commence sets107. In an enlargement, Drummond et al. expected that diamondoids exhibit negative electron affinity103. The band gap depends upon the measure of nanoparticles. Two basic class of nanoparticles have been investigated: I) diamondoids created from unyielding pens: adamantane, C10H16, diamantane, C14H20, and pentamantane, C26H32; (ii) H-finished, round, valuable stone structure nanoparticles: C29H36, C66H64, and C87H76108. Since diamondoids can be removed in immense sums from oil and are exceedingly disinfected by using high-weight liquid chromatography, one can expect that genuine trial tests contain, as it were, of the high-symmetry structures thought about theoretically. This isn’t the circumstance for Si and Ge nanoparticles, where confinements in current mix strategies keep the typical production of high symmetry nanoparticles109.

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