The Greece, buildings were made with a

The temple of Athena Nike is a temple built and used by ancient Greeks, in 420 BCE. It is the smallest temple on the Acropolis in Athens. It is 23 ft. high, 27 ft. long, and 18 ft. wide. “It is made of pentelic marble, from the quarries at Penteli north of Athens” (London). It is a fine-grained marble. This type of marble was used for most of the major monuments in Athens (London). The temple was built by hand by the Greek architect Kallikrates. It was built in ionic order, which is a classical form of architecture. “The Ionic order is defined by the Ionic column. In ancient Greece, buildings were made with a number of columns that held up their roofs” (Muscato). A column was made up of several parts. The base is the stone platform at the bottom of the column. There are usually multiple layers to the base. On top of the base is the shaft, the long part of the column with grooves running down the sides  (Muscato). At the very top is the capital, the decorative stone that holds the weight of the roof. Ionic columns are usually more slender, but the defining feature of the Ionic order is the volute of the column. A volute is the spiral, scroll-like capital of the column (Muscato). The temple has four monolithic columns on the east and west fronts. Monolithic column means that each shaft on the column was made with one single piece of stone. “The temple is sometimes called the pearl of the Acropolis, since it was designed and decorated with great care.” (Minollari).  It held a wingless statue of the Goddess Athena, that is no longer standing today. The temple was built to honor the goddess, Athena Nike. She was known as the guardian of Athens, and for protecting civilized life. The temple was used to worship Athena. People would frequently bring things as gifts to her and place them at the altar. They would then stand or kneel down and pray to her. It allowed people to pray and worship the goddess of victory (Minollari). “The Greek goddess Athena was frequently called upon to settle disputes between the gods or mortals” (Turnbull). She was known for her logic and intellect (Turnbull). They cared a lot about her, and the role that she played in the city. A statue was built of her, inside the temple. Even though Nike gods are normally portrayed with wings, her statue was wingless. It was built that way to represent that she would never abandon Athens (Temple). “It was not a place where regular people could enter. The believers would simply perform rituals in front of the temple, where a small altar was, and could look at the statue of the goddess through the space between the columns” (Minollari). They would normally have to sacrifice something to the god being worshiped. Animals sacrificed were usually pigs, sheep, goats or cows and always the same gender as the god which was being honored (Cartwright). Then the meat was either burnt completely or cooked, with part offered to the god and the rest eaten by some or all of the worshippers (Cartwright). The privilege of entering the temple was reserved for the priestesses, who held a respected position in Greek society (Minollari). People today can learn that the people who used this temple in ancient Greek history, looked up to Athena. They believed that she was a very important person, judging by the fact that they have built this whole temple to honor her and worship her. Since she was called upon to settle problems between people more than anyone else, she was very necessary to have around in society. Through their work, the Greeks showed people today that they cared a lot about their architecture. This temple was destroyed twice, and rebuilt over and over (Sakoulas). They also replace the floors every few years to prevent damage. They shows that they put a lot of hard work into these structures. People can also learn that the Greeks played a big part in how architecture developed. The types of ionic structures they used are still used today, thanks to the Greeks. Also, the monolithic columns are still used in famous buildings around the world. This shows that the Greek’s architecture has inspired architects and influenced the way things are built today.

The child to go, you would have

The Hitler Youth were an organization of children from the ages of ten through eighteen in which they were brainwashed with the ideal society consisting of Adolf Hitler as their leader. The Hitler Youth started as a small organization in 1920 which in 1926 was renamed “The Hitler Youth”. The organization started off small with approximately one hundred thousand members yet, when Hitler gained control over Germany he eradicated all of youth movements which caused the Hitler Youth to gain a total of approximately 4 million members, which was ninety percent of the German children at the time. If you didn’t want your child to go, you would have to pay a fee. The Hitler youth taught military techniques and forced the Hitler ideology into their lives with signs of Hitler everywhere. This caused most children to be completely obedient to Hitler and worship him as their God as the Hitler youth oath stated “I swear to devote all my energies and my strength to the savior of our country Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him.” The Hitler youth were thought of as the future of the nazis and were trained as such. The hitler youth were trained from age ten with rifles, military tactics and with the ideology of racism and antisemitism. The Hitler Youth to the German population at the time could be resembled by the modern day Boy Scouts yet far different training yet, at the time. it was thought of as such  Although Hitler Youth seemed like a fun extracurricular activity for German children, the hitler youth actually were the key to German achievement because they were bloodthirsty warriors influenced from childhood by propaganda and they forced their families to adopt Nazi beliefs or risk military punishment.When it came to war, the hitler youth were ferocious on the battlefront. American soldiers were documented as feeling horrible for killing the children yet they had to because of their bloodthirsty attitudes. The reasoning behind the attitudes of these young warriors is that they grew up their whole life being indoctrinated with Adolf Hitler. Hitler eradicated all Jewish teachers and students and censored textbooks with his own views.The words of Hitler were spoken throughout the schooling system. Hitler was in all of their schools and he was made to look like a great person. A portrait of him was added to all classrooms and there were textbooks specifically designed to teach children to love Hitler and they added experiences of the trill of children after seeing him for their first time.Classrooms aimed to produce a race conscious, obedient and self sacrificing German society that would die for their country. A Hitler youth member recalled on his past life and was quoted as saying “To die for the Fatherland sounded really great.” The children were willing to die for Adolf and their attitude on the battlefield correlates. From the age of ten the children were trained with rifles and battle technique so they were experienced when it came to the battlefield. When the was was in full swing children as young as ten were on the frontline defending their country. Most children had received years of trained sometimes more than adults making them very impactful on the German side of the battlefield. A complete society of young healthy children on the battle field willing to die for their country who have been trained since childhood made an excellent army. The Hitler Youth fundamentally controlled the population in a way that history had never seen before. The children were trained at camp to basically turn their parents into officials if they say anything that went against the Nazi morals. There were multiple cases of turning in their parents to officials for example 18 year old Elisabeth Vetter stated that she didn’t belong to her parents anymore rather she believed she belonged to hitler.Her parents did not agree with this and told her to leave which caused them to be arrested for four weeks and when they returned nothing of this incident was said again. In this sense the hitler youth controlled families and censored anything bad of hitter to be said. Many children also went home and ranted to their parents about how great hitter was yet these parents could not deny what they were saying or else they would be arrested rather they would embrace it. In this sense the hitler youth could effortlessly control the population created a society which was completely compliment with Hitler and his actions. The hitler youth were also used as propaganda tools implementing them in posters and they were used to hand out propaganda to the population. They put propaganda on the streets and sooner or later everyone would have Nazi morals implemented into their brain. This is another way they controlled the population. They were great tools, considering their were about four million of them, for handing propaganda out and forcing the Nazi lifestyle into many people lives. In a nutshell the hitler youth could keep their parents and families under control and implement this racist and fascist value and turn it into the social norm and this is just another way they impacted World War in Two.At this point a valid question could be why? Why did hitler feel like he needed these children to accomplish what he did? To answer this question Hitlers goal was to create a society in which everybody is completely obedient to him that is un-rebellious and he decided that the youth would be the best way of accomplishing this, taking in to account that they were the future of Germany. Hitler said “I begin with the young, We older ones are used up… But my magnificent youngsters! Look at these men and boys! What material! With them, I can create a new world.” This just goes to show that again he wanted to have the future of Germany under his control which, if Germany had won the war, he would have done. If he had a society completely acquiescent to his ideas there would be no one who would rebel against him and this is just what he desired. The leader of the Nazi teacher league believed that if you have the youth on your side you can control the future and this is why it was mandatory for the youth to be under Nazi control. The youth were the future of Germany and if you take control of them at such a young vulnerable age, they would become the future population with their kids being taught the same teaching they did and the cycle would continue which would have created the ideal, completely compliant society that Hitler wanted. All of the above are the motivation for Hitler and the Nazis to try to take control of the helpless young and turn them into nefarious, horrid monsters with no regard for people who didn’t comply with the Nazi attitude. Furthermore how did Hitler accomplish creating a whole generation of innocent children into Nazis? Well it first started with the schooling system being completely revamped, taking out all Jews and implementing Hitler throughout the school. At these new schools teachings were bias and racist and would keep the children in the Nazi mind set, the children even celebrated his birthday as a holiday. The next way was through the Hitler youth program which at first seemed harmless. In the modern world parents send children to camps regularly and the hurled youth was looked at no different, it seemed completely harmless to send your child there yet, what they were being taught behind the scenes was much to impactful to be unheard. The children were completely brainwashed into Hitlers ideology and mindset. When ninety percent of parents think they are sending their children to a fun after school camp, ninety percent of the children in Germany become brainwashed into Hitlers deceptive, despotic system.Hitler created children through this program that would turn completely against their parents just to attempt to satisfy Hitler. This educational system was formulated so perfectly that in a few years of being in the Hitler Youth, children would be willing to die for Hitler. This is how he created such ferocious warriors on the battle field that would put their life in front of some persons that they would probably never meet. Children as young as ten yours old were fighting in the front line, not worrying about returning home to their family, their actions correlated with their attitude of making hitler proud. They would rather die in the war then upset their leader Hitler and once again all of this was just through a seemingly harmless small after school camp that all the kids went to.The role of the Hitler Youth in World War Two could be described as a key and vital part in the dominance of Germany. Without the hitler youth there would be no obedience between the government and the people and there would be no order. The hitler youth kept the order in Germany, it kept the families from revolting and it kept the children in line. Adolf Hitler was a genius in the category of diversion. He used the children as a distraction of what was going on behind the scenes. The children were used as a curtain in a way to keep the families eyes away from what is behind which is destruction. The children were the best method of doing this, they were young, vulnerable and they didn’t know any better so they were the easiest to control therefor the easiest to use as a cloak to conceal the madness. The children were deranged on the battlefield and no one wanted to kill them. They were just children after all, right? That would be incorrect, the children were turned into killers and monsters with horrible attitudes to anyone who didn’t fit into the Nazi idealism. In conclusion the Hitler Youth controlled the society and were completely brainwashed into the Nazi beliefs which shaped Germany into a society that greatly benefited the Nazi side during World War Two.The Hitler Youth were an organization of children from the ages of ten through eighteen in which they were brainwashed with the ideal society consisting of Adolf Hitler as their leader. The Hitler Youth started as a small organization in 1920 which in 1926 was renamed “The Hitler Youth”. The organization started off small with approximately one hundred thousand members yet, when Hitler gained control over Germany he eradicated all of youth movements which caused the Hitler Youth to gain a total of approximately 4 million members, which was ninety percent of the German children at the time. If you didn’t want your child to go, you would have to pay a fee. The Hitler youth taught military techniques and forced the Hitler ideology into their lives with signs of Hitler everywhere. This caused most children to be completely obedient to Hitler and worship him as their God as the Hitler youth oath stated “I swear to devote all my energies and my strength to the savior of our country Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him.” The Hitler youth were thought of as the future of the nazis and were trained as such. The hitler youth were trained from age ten with rifles, military tactics and with the ideology of racism and antisemitism. The Hitler Youth to the German population at the time could be resembled by the modern day Boy Scouts yet far different training yet, at the time. it was thought of as such  Although Hitler Youth seemed like a fun extracurricular activity for German children, the hitler youth actually were the key to German achievement because they were bloodthirsty warriors influenced from childhood by propaganda and they forced their families to adopt Nazi beliefs or risk military punishment.When it came to war, the hitler youth were ferocious on the battlefront. American soldiers were documented as feeling horrible for killing the children yet they had to because of their bloodthirsty attitudes. The reasoning behind the attitudes of these young warriors is that they grew up their whole life being indoctrinated with Adolf Hitler. Hitler eradicated all Jewish teachers and students and censored textbooks with his own views.The words of Hitler were spoken throughout the schooling system. Hitler was in all of their schools and he was made to look like a great person. A portrait of him was added to all classrooms and there were textbooks specifically designed to teach children to love Hitler and they added experiences of the trill of children after seeing him for their first time.Classrooms aimed to produce a race conscious, obedient and self sacrificing German society that would die for their country. A Hitler youth member recalled on his past life and was quoted as saying “To die for the Fatherland sounded really great.” The children were willing to die for Adolf and their attitude on the battlefield correlates. From the age of ten the children were trained with rifles and battle technique so they were experienced when it came to the battlefield. When the was was in full swing children as young as ten were on the frontline defending their country. Most children had received years of trained sometimes more than adults making them very impactful on the German side of the battlefield. A complete society of young healthy children on the battle field willing to die for their country who have been trained since childhood made an excellent army. The Hitler Youth fundamentally controlled the population in a way that history had never seen before. The children were trained at camp to basically turn their parents into officials if they say anything that went against the Nazi morals. There were multiple cases of turning in their parents to officials for example 18 year old Elisabeth Vetter stated that she didn’t belong to her parents anymore rather she believed she belonged to hitler.Her parents did not agree with this and told her to leave which caused them to be arrested for four weeks and when they returned nothing of this incident was said again. In this sense the hitler youth controlled families and censored anything bad of hitter to be said. Many children also went home and ranted to their parents about how great hitter was yet these parents could not deny what they were saying or else they would be arrested rather they would embrace it. In this sense the hitler youth could effortlessly control the population created a society which was completely compliment with Hitler and his actions. The hitler youth were also used as propaganda tools implementing them in posters and they were used to hand out propaganda to the population. They put propaganda on the streets and sooner or later everyone would have Nazi morals implemented into their brain. This is another way they controlled the population. They were great tools, considering their were about four million of them, for handing propaganda out and forcing the Nazi lifestyle into many people lives. In a nutshell the hitler youth could keep their parents and families under control and implement this racist and fascist value and turn it into the social norm and this is just another way they impacted World War in Two.At this point a valid question could be why? Why did hitler feel like he needed these children to accomplish what he did? To answer this question Hitlers goal was to create a society in which everybody is completely obedient to him that is un-rebellious and he decided that the youth would be the best way of accomplishing this, taking in to account that they were the future of Germany. Hitler said “I begin with the young, We older ones are used up… But my magnificent youngsters! Look at these men and boys! What material! With them, I can create a new world.” This just goes to show that again he wanted to have the future of Germany under his control which, if Germany had won the war, he would have done. If he had a society completely acquiescent to his ideas there would be no one who would rebel against him and this is just what he desired. The leader of the Nazi teacher league believed that if you have the youth on your side you can control the future and this is why it was mandatory for the youth to be under Nazi control. The youth were the future of Germany and if you take control of them at such a young vulnerable age, they would become the future population with their kids being taught the same teaching they did and the cycle would continue which would have created the ideal, completely compliant society that Hitler wanted. All of the above are the motivation for Hitler and the Nazis to try to take control of the helpless young and turn them into nefarious, horrid monsters with no regard for people who didn’t comply with the Nazi attitude. Furthermore how did Hitler accomplish creating a whole generation of innocent children into Nazis? Well it first started with the schooling system being completely revamped, taking out all Jews and implementing Hitler throughout the school. At these new schools teachings were bias and racist and would keep the children in the Nazi mind set, the children even celebrated his birthday as a holiday. The next way was through the Hitler youth program which at first seemed harmless. In the modern world parents send children to camps regularly and the hurled youth was looked at no different, it seemed completely harmless to send your child there yet, what they were being taught behind the scenes was much to impactful to be unheard. The children were completely brainwashed into Hitlers ideology and mindset. When ninety percent of parents think they are sending their children to a fun after school camp, ninety percent of the children in Germany become brainwashed into Hitlers deceptive, despotic system.Hitler created children through this program that would turn completely against their parents just to attempt to satisfy Hitler. This educational system was formulated so perfectly that in a few years of being in the Hitler Youth, children would be willing to die for Hitler. This is how he created such ferocious warriors on the battle field that would put their life in front of some persons that they would probably never meet. Children as young as ten yours old were fighting in the front line, not worrying about returning home to their family, their actions correlated with their attitude of making hitler proud. They would rather die in the war then upset their leader Hitler and once again all of this was just through a seemingly harmless small after school camp that all the kids went to.The role of the Hitler Youth in World War Two could be described as a key and vital part in the dominance of Germany. Without the hitler youth there would be no obedience between the government and the people and there would be no order. The hitler youth kept the order in Germany, it kept the families from revolting and it kept the children in line. Adolf Hitler was a genius in the category of diversion. He used the children as a distraction of what was going on behind the scenes. The children were used as a curtain in a way to keep the families eyes away from what is behind which is destruction. The children were the best method of doing this, they were young, vulnerable and they didn’t know any better so they were the easiest to control therefor the easiest to use as a cloak to conceal the madness. The children were deranged on the battlefield and no one wanted to kill them. They were just children after all, right? That would be incorrect, the children were turned into killers and monsters with horrible attitudes to anyone who didn’t fit into the Nazi idealism. In conclusion the Hitler Youth controlled the society and were completely brainwashed into the Nazi beliefs which shaped Germany into a society that greatly benefited the Nazi side during World War Two.

The months were 51% in 2004 and

The most cost-effective public health initiative to prevent childhood morbidity and mortality has proven to be immunization. Immunization has greatly reduced 2–3 million under-5-year mortality each year due to infectious diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, tuberculosis, polio, and measles 1–3. Even though the global immunization coverage has remained steady for the past few years, the coverage in low-income countries is still far from universal 1,4,5. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 19.4 million infants worldwide are still missing out on basic vaccines 4. In Malawi, the proportions of children who were fully immunized by 12 months were 51% in 2004 and 72% in 2010 6,7. These statistics fall short of the benchmark of 90% recommended by the WHO through the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) 2,3,8.It is well established that individual-level factors such as child’s characteristics 9–13, mother’s age 1,9,11, education status 1,5,11,13,14, healthcare utilization 1,5,15–19, distance to health care facilities 20–23, household wealth 11,12,14,16,17, immunization plan 1,9,15,17, maternal and paternal occupation 12,18, and exposure to media 1,18,23 have significant effectson childhood immunization. However, very few studies have investigated the influence of community-level factors on childhoodimmunization and whether the effects still exist after controllingfor individual-level characteristics 5,12,14. Prior studies reportedthat the community constitutes a key component of socioeconomicchallenges to good health, since it shapes individual opportunitiesand exposes residents to multiple risks and resources over their lifecourse 24. Thus concentrating on one level can lead to practicaland methodological problems at other levels 25.To the best of our knowledge, no study has until now been conductedin Malawi using a wide range of individual- andcommunity-level factors to assess the likelihood of childhood vaccinationcoverage and complete immunization. We thus aimed toexamine both individual- and community-level risk factors ofchildhood immunization and addressed the relationships with differenttypes of vaccination in Malawi. Specifically, we aimed tocompare immunization coverage and trends in relation to theindividual- and community-level factors between 2004 and 2010MDHS.

Homeostasis work to help us survive. Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal
environment by the combination of bodily functions. Cells, the basic unit in
all living things depend on the body environment to survive and perform their specific
functions. Homeostasis ensures cells get the conditions they need. If poor
conditions are present, processes such as osmosis and proteins such as enzymes
won’t be able to fulfil their function. Disasters can then be caused such as
heatstroke, hypothermia, hypercalcemia, obesity or diabetes. Homeostasis is involuntary;
we don’t need to know anything from birth to make it work to help us survive.
Homeostasis works in feedback loops, negative feedback to bring a condition
back to its normal state and positive feedback for a condition to go further
away from its normal state.

 

The endocrine system comprises of glands that secrete
hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones are chemical messengers that cause
changes in the body. Hormones are involved in negative feedback loops to ensure
conditions are normal. One condition is blood glucose concentration. Blood
glucose concentration rises after eating food high in carbohydrates, or falls
after exercise. The pancreas – an organ in the endocrine system – detects when
blood glucose concentration is too high or too low. If too high, beta cells
secrete insulin and alpha cells stop secreting glucagon. If too low, beta cells
stop secreting insulin and alpha cells secrete glucagon. In both cases, the
secreted hormone binds to liver cells. Insulin converts excess glucose to
glucagon in high blood glucose concentration. Glucagon is converted into
glucose for low blood glucose concentration. Blood glucose levels then revert
to normal. Insulin and glucagon are secreted by islets of Langerhans. Under
great stress or during exercise blood glucose concentration can get very low,
therefore, adrenaline is released from the adrenal glands. Adrenaline binds to
receptors in liver cells, and increases the blood glucose concentration. It activates
the breakdown of glycogen to glucose and inhibits the synthesis of glycogen
from glucose. It also activates glucagon secretion and inhibits insulin
secretion. Blood glucose concentration is then brought back to normal via a
negative feedback loop.

A second example of homeostasis is temperature control. Body
temperature is usually kept at 37oC ± 0.5oC. If body
temperature is too high or too low enzymes can become denatured or enzyme
activity can be reduced. Metabolic reactions are then less efficient.
Therefore, the body detects when the temperature is too far away from 37oC.
Effectors then respond to either decrease or increase the temperature. To decrease
the temperature, sweat glands produce sweat which increases heat loss by
evaporation. Hairs also lay flat so heat can escape. To increase the
temperature, hairs stand up to trap air. Humans also shiver which generates
heat. In both cases, temperature returns to normal, again via a negative
feedback loop.

A third example of homeostasis is calcium levels. 99% of
calcium is in our teeth and bones, the 1% is in the blood. Too low or too high
calcium levels can result in either hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia respectively,
weakening bones, wheezing or even causing kidney stones. The parathyroid glands
release parathyroid hormone to increase the amount of calcium in bloodstream if
calcium levels are too low. If calcium levels are too high the thyroid gland
releases calcitonin which increases bone calcium content, decreasing the amount
of calcium in the blood.

All major organ systems work together like an orchestra to
keep the human body functioning.  The
excretory system contains kidneys which are made up of lots of tiny structures
called nephrons. The glomerulus in each nephron filters oxygenated blood from
the heart in the cardiovascular system, removing excess water and waste
products. That blood can then go to the rest of the body concentrated of
oxygen, therefore no waste will affect the ability for oxygen to work in the body.
Without the cardiovascular system, the kidney won’t have the oxygenated blood
to perform its many functions. The cardiovascular system also links to the
digestive system. In the digestive system, food is broken down by chemical and
mechanical digestion. Food contains minerals, nutrients, salts and more. When
the food is broken down, these minerals etc are absorbed into the bloodstream. 

3. b2…,bN as variables and estimate ;,

3. The
Bounds of Boole-Bonferroni

The Boole-Bonferroni bounds used for estimate the probability of the
union of the N dependent events. These bounds were derived by Boros and Prékopa
2, 17, and improved by many papers as 2-5, 11, 12, 17. The technique of
these bounds based on solving the linear programming problem.

The following expected value proved by Prékopa 18:

,                   i
=1,2,…,N                                                                                                                                                      (1)

where
and , if i > l.

The value Si,j called the ith
binomial moment of µ.

By consideration
b1, b2…,bN
as variables and estimate ;,
then we have the following linear programming problems:

Minimize {b1
+ b2 + …+ bV +…+ bN}                                                                                                                                                            (2)

Subject to:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    

Maximize {b1
+ b2 + …+ bV +…+ bN}                                                                                                                                                            (3)

Subject to:

                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Solving these problems will give us the best possible of lower and upper
bounds for:

                                                                                                                                                                                              (4)

These bounds are named Boole-Bonferroni bounds. When V=2, the solutions of problems
(2) and (3) give us the second order of Boole-Bonferroni bounds as follows.

3.1. The
Bounds of Boole-Bonferroni with V=2:

   When V=2 and the binomial moments and,
j = 1, 2, 3,…, H, are evaluated, we can
get the lower bound of by:

.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (5)

Where:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (6)

And the upper bound of by:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (7)

4. The Upper bound of Hunter-Worsley.

Also, the Hunter–Worsley upper bound used for estimate the probability
of the union of the N dependent events. Hunter and Worsley 19,20 derived
an effective upper bound using the binomial moment  and some of the specific probabilities
involved in .
This upper bound can be calculated quickly and always sharper than the Boole-Bonferroni
upper bound in (7). The upper bound of Hunter–Worsley is given by:

,                                                                                                                                                                                      (8)

where .

 

5.  The Bounds of Increasing MS C(k,r,n:F).

Using
the definition of , , the state of increasing MS C(k,r,n:F) is less than j, if at
least one event  , , occurred. Then

 for all                                                                                                                                                       (12)

Evaluation
 exactly is very difficult, so we will suggest an
approximation for bounds
of increasing MS C(k,r,n:F) using
Boole-Bonferroni bounds, which given by (5), (7), and using Hunter–Worsley upper bound, which given by (8) . For evaluation these bounds, we need calculation
the binomial moments and , which are the main problem. In the following section, we
proposed new algorithms for calculation the binomial moments and . After estimate the
lower bounds and upper bounds of , one can get
the lower bounds and upper
bounds of  by:

LBj = 1- (upper bound of ) ,                                                                                                                                                                                              (13)

UBj = 1- (lower bound of ).                                                                                                                                                                                              (14)

Furthermore,
one value of  given by:

.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (15)

The maximum error is:

 .                                                                                                                                                                                                   (16)

However, and spiritual development via education as

However, a purpose which doesn’t correspond with the idea of
education being to find a career path may be the argument that instead suggests
that achieving personal, intellectual and spiritual fulfillment is the purpose
of education.  Mahata Gandhi was an
idealist thinker who believed there was a great importance between spiritual values
and education. Gandhi believed that a purpose of education was the spiritual
development of an individual. Gandhi believed that young people should achieve their
own physical, mental and spiritual development via education as education
should be aimed at sparking curiosity and providing motivation to enable this.

 

Every child in the UK is entitled to Education and for that reason
full time education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5-16. There
is no doubt that Education has a huge impact on the future and lives of pupils
participating in the educational system. It could be put forward that the main
purpose of Education is to awaken pupils. It could be argued that school is
where career aspirations start for many pupils, giving them an idea of future
job roles. Therefore, education has an element of focus on the practical
business of guaranteeing young people obtain the preparation in order to secure
a good job and fulfilling career. Education also enables young people with the
skills of resilience and moral character to overcome challenges and succeed.
Schools Minister Nick Gibb states that strong literacy skills are extremely
important and remain important long after a young person has left their formal
education. Adults and young people with or with the equivalent of a good level
of English language GCSE are said to be more likely to be in work compared to
others with lower levels of literacy skills. The OECD survey of Adult Skills
expressed that adults with weak literacy skills are twice as likely to be
unemployed compared to adults with strong literacy skills. (bjhbh) Data taken
from Wilson et al 2014 conveys that the job market will continue to professionalize
jobs. The data also conveys that the increase of strong demand for people with
degree’s will continue to heighten. These factors highlight the important of
education when applying for jobs, conveying that there is a strong link connecting
Education to future job prospects. Furthermore, the factors discussed express
how education provides young people with the academic and career skilled
credentials needed to help young people stand out among other job applicants
applying for the same job role. Additionally, young people who decide to stay
on to higher education at a university level will be able to expand their
skills with a set degree of their choice which can lead to different aspects of
their chosen career path.

 

 

For centuries there has been many different
interpretations on the purpose of education, the aim of this essay will be to
explore and discuss in detail the purposes of education today.  Education is the process of teaching or
learning, attaining skills, knowledge and beliefs. Education can take place in
both formal and informal settings, formal settings such as classroom based
learning and informal settings such as museums which could be seen as a non-traditional environment. Education
in the UK is normally separated into four separate stages, Nursery school, Primary
school, Secondary education and Higher education or Vocational education. The
meaning of purpose is the reason for which something is done or created or for
which something exists.

ENG in love and got married. Soon

ENG – Mythology SummativeStory of Myth : Orpheus is known as the most talented music player of the ancient times. He lived in Thrace, on the northeastern part of Greece. Orpheus’ music playing and singing voice was said to be magical and the myth says that no god or mortal could resist his music. His music drew in many people from a far including a wood nymph named Eurydice. They both instantly fell in love and got married. Soon after their marriage, Eurydice had been bit by a deadly viper and died next to a river. After her death, Orpheus was filled with sadness and grief. He decided to go to the underworld to try and get his wife back. To get into the underworld, Orpheus must cross the River Styx  which is the river that all mortals must cross before entering the underworld. The ferryman usually requires a deadly fee for carrying passengers but when Orpheus played his magical lyre, the ferryman Charon took him for free. When he asked Hades if he would return Eurydice to him, he refused. Then, Orpheus played his lyre and sang a song. Orpheus’ voice was so moving that Hades agreed to let Eurydice follow him to the world of the living. However, he had one condition that Orpheus can’t look back at Eurydice while she’s still in the underworld, if he did, it would undo everything and Eurydice would be sent to the underworld forever. As Orpheus was reaching the exit of the underworld, he couldn’t hear the footsteps of his wife behind him, tempted to look to see if she was there. The moment he stepped in the world of the living, he turned his head to hug his wife. Unfortunately, he got only a glimpse of Eurydice before she was once again drawn back into the underworld because when Orpheus turned his head, Eurydice was still in the dark, she hadn’t seen the sun and, as Hades has warned Orpheus, his wife was drowned back to the dark world of the dead. Orpheus is devastated again and roams around Greece playing sad songs. His sadness prevented him contact with any other woman and soon he would avoid them completely. So, a group of angry women, (maenads) furious for his scorn towards them, killed him, cut his body into pieces and threw them and his lyre into a river. It’s said that his severed head and lyre floated to the island of Lesvos where the muses found him and gave Orpheus a proper burial. His soul descended down to Hades where he was finally reunited with his beloved Eurydice. History/Geography : Orpheus was born and raised in Thrace which is a part of Greece that’s bordering Turkey. Many historians portray Thracians as ancient because they lived a simple lifestyle, but Thracians were known to have an advanced culture in poetry and music. This helps better understand for why Orpheus was raised in Thrace since he was known for his musical and poetic skills. Trace is also known for its beautiful rivers and meadows, many of which are seen through the myth especially when Eurydice dies and Orpheus’ head is thrown in the river. Greece also has many islands, over 1400 to be specific which is why the river carried Orpheus’ head downstream to the island of Lesvos. Religion & Culture : For greek religion, the sole obligation was for the greeks to believe that gods existed and to provide rituals and sacrifice for the gods. If anyone were to deny the existence of the gods or believe it to be false, they were to risk punishments from the deity or other mortals. Orpheus believed in the underworld and that it was ruled by the god Hades. He believed that Eurydice went to the underworld after she died and went to save her himself. Social Structure: In ancient greece, the social structure was split into 4 categories. The slaves, lower class(freedman), middle class (meltics), and upper class (athens). Slaves were people who were “propertied” by the wealthy, freedman were people who had been slaves but had enough money to buy their freedom, meltics are who have a decent amount of money (craftsmen, artists, merchants, etc.) and athens were the wealthiest people who were citizens and had slaves work for them. Women had specific roles in greek culture and they would always have fewer rights than men. Orpheus had to go to the underworld to save Eurydice as she is seen as weak and too incapable of saving herself. As for why the myth may have been created, there are many supposed reasons. The moral point that may have lead to the creation of the myth is the power of love. When Eurydice dies, Orpheus bends the will of Hades, goes down into the Underworld to get her and proves that love is stronger than death itself. The moral of the power of love may have been created to give hope of finding love to people in the lower social structures such as slaves or commoners. Second, trust is a key moral point which may have lead to the creation of the myth. If Orpheus had not turned to look back if Eurydice was following, they would have both made it back to the land of the living. The moral being to trust the gods and the greater beings, to trust your religion or faith and believe in it. Since ancient greek believed very strongly in their beliefs, they had many myths that had a moral of trusting the gods or greater powers. This helped provide support for why they should follow the culture of ancient greeks. Based on the morals of the myth, my thematic statement for the myth is “the adversity of death shows the extent of devotion between 2 people demonstrating that love conquers even the toughest of hardships and that we acknowledge the value of something once it’s gone. ” First, there is the symbol of Orpheus’ lyre which represents his appreciation of music and poetry. His lyre is also what attracted Eurydice to him and made them fell in love. The lyre also helps Orpheus defeat all the challenges in the underworld and helps persuade hades to let Eurydice go. Orpheus’ lyre helps him get his true love in the first place and after she dies. Both times, the lyre is what takes Eurydice back to Orpheus. Second, there is also the symbolism of snakes. Snakes are usually connected with sneakiness, temptation and death. The snake bit Eurydice without warning (sneaky) and kills her (death). The snake bit Eurydice on her ankle and in greek mythology ankles appear as a symbol vulnerability since they are the only body part that are “exposed”. For example, Achilles’ ankle is his weakness and the part of his body that brings him down. Even though the snake bite killed Eurydice, Orpheus stayed loyal to her until his dying breath. He loved her even more and was filled with grief after she was gone. This shows how death made Orpheus love Eurydice more, since she was no longer there.  There is also a river / water allusion to the bible in the myth. In the bible, water is used for baptism and cleansing of sins. It symbolizes the cleansing of sins by a deity such as a god. Rivers symbolize the transition between life and death since they are constantly flowing. The river styx makes this clear since it’s a river in the underworld that’s allowing Orpheus to transition from the land of the living to the land of the dead. Also, Eurydice dies next to a river which shows her transition from being alive to dead. Additionally, the maenads kill orpheus and throw his body parts and head into a river. The river shows Orpheus’ transition from once being living to dying and going to the underworld. They also show Orpheus’ death is the cleansing of his sins, since Orpheus disobeyed a god, Hades, by looking back at Eurydice in the underworld when he was specifically told not to. Additionally there’s the biblical allusion to Lot and his Wife. The story of these 2 is that while the city was falling, God asked them to leave and never look back since the cities were so full of evil. Lot’s wife, tempted to do what is not allowed, turns to look back at the city and is turned to a pillar of salt. The message was taken that looking back is a form of disobedience towards god, after being told not to do a certain act. Also, many believe that god’s written our destiny and that whatever he decides is for the best, if we look back, it shows disobedience towards god for not accepting what he has in plan for us. Similarly, Orpheus was not to look back at Eurydice and was ordered from a deity just like Lot’s wife, in this case Hades. The main message was to not deny god’s and to respect them. Since Orpheus disobeyed Hades, he lost his wife to the underworld forever. The allusion shows that since Orpheus lost Eurydice forever, he loved her  even more and would sing songs about her personality, looks, etc. her death, made her more valuable to Orpheus just like the city did to Lot’s wife after being destroyed. Relevance of myth to contemporary culture: The myths morals of the power of love being greater than anything else is seen throughout later societies. Also, it was believed that Orpheus was the start of many poetic and musical inspirations for people because  of his magical voice. The myth of Orpheus and Eurydice was also used for many other love stories in literature such as Romeo and Juliet since they were not permitted to be together but their love was greater than anything else. Also the idea of death being inevitable is also seen throughout many books and movies in today’s culture (eg. the maze runner, if death is written for you, you will get it, there’s no avoiding it).

Introduction: indirectly, as, when the reaction occurs,

Introduction:
The purpose of this lab is to investigate reaction rates, in this case,
the investigation of effect of reactant concentration on reaction rate, as many
reactions occur at different rates, in this experiment the factor investigated
will be how the concentration of one of reactants in the system, affects the
rate of reaction. In the experiment designed for this observation, the rate of
reaction is investigated indirectly, as, when the reaction occurs, the solution
turns white and what is observed is the time in seconds it takes the reaction
to turn fully white (opaque) by observation of a black cross drawn under the
transparent container in which the reaction takes place.
The prediction/hypothesis in this experiment is based on the collision theory:
The time it takes for the reaction to occur is dependent on concentration of
one of the reactants, lowering the concentration, will increase the time needed
for the reaction to be fully complete.

 

Research
Question:
How does the concentration of a reactant affect the reaction rate?

 

Variables
in the experiment:
This experiment is designed around the observation of the reaction
becoming opaque and how the concentration of one of the reactants affects the
rate at which the reaction becomes opaque, as the concentration is the variable
which Is changed, it is determined the independent variable, as the
concentration changes, the rate at which the reactions turns opaque, and at
which the cross drawn underneath it “disappears” is expected to change, therefore
the rate of reaction/time for the cross to disappear is deemed the dependent
variable is this experiment as the reaction rate is expected to depend on the
concentration, the variables which are controlled is the experiment are: the
initial temperature of the solution, the volume of the acid added and the total
volume of the solution, the control of initial temperature allows us to
determine if the temperature may have had an impact on the experimental outcome.
Control of the total volume and acid added volume is needed to assure that the
independent variable is affecting the dependent one. The temperature is
controlled by a thermometer, the volume is controlled by accurate measurement
of the substances used and diluent (in this case water – H2O) used.

Independent: Concentration, Dependent: Time for the cross to disappear,
reaction rate
Controlled: Total volume, initial temperature, volume of HCL added.

 

Background
Information:
Collision Theory:
“For a reaction to occur, particles must collide; with more than a certain
minimum of energy and with correct orientations”; “With more particles in a
certain volume, the particles collide more often (collision frequency is
higher) and therefore there is a greater chance of a successful collision (i.e
one that results in a reaction) occurring in a certain time” 1
according to collision theory, only a certain amount of particles react when
colliding, therefore reactions happening at different rates, collision theory
also explains a phenomenon; reaction rate tends to increase with the
concentration of the reactants. The reason being, a higher concentration of
particles, increases the chance of the particles colliding, therefore
increasing the reaction rate. 

In the experiment, Na2S2O3 and HCL are
used, when reacted together, sulfur is produced as a solid precipitate, and it
is the chemical which makes the solution become increasingly cloudy, therefore
allowing the measure of time taken for the reaction to become opaque.

To investigate the relation between the concentration of Na2S2O3 and
time taken for the reactants to become opaque, the Na2S2O3
will be diluted with water (H2O) to achieve different
concentrations of the Na2S2O3 solution, each
concentration will be used in 3 trials, to assure the accuracy of the experimental
outcome.

The balanced chemical equation in this experiment is:
Na2S2O3(aq)
+ 2HCL(aq) à 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(aq)+H2O(l)+S(s)

Experimental
Equipment:

Equipment

1.      Graduated Cylinder ±0.5ml

2.      Graduated Cylinder ±0.2ml

3.      Conical flask (Container)

4.      Stop Clock ±0.2s

5.      Digital thermometer ±0.1 °C

6.      Pipettes

7.      Funnel

8.      Paper + Pen

Chemicals

1.      Hydrochloric acid HCL(aq)
Conc. 2M

2.      Sodium thiosulfate Na2S2O3
Conc. 0.25M

3.      Distilled water H2O

 

 

Safety
Notes:
HCL: Hydrochloric
Acid – Corrosive, prolonged inhalation and skin exposure of the acid at high
concentrations can be dangerous, therefore good ventilation and the use of
gloves is recommended.

Na2S2O3:
Sodium thiosulfate – Prolonged inhalation and skin exposure at high
concentration can be dangerous, good ventilation and use of gloves is
recommended, additionally when in fire, produces dangerous fumes, therefore it
is recommended to avoid contact with high temperatures.

Both HCL and
Na2S2O3 bear low risk disposal hazards,
although after reacted, the created solid should be filtered out of the liquid
and disposed into appropriate container.

There is no ethical issues regarding this experiment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram of lab set-up:

 

 

 

 

 

Conical
Flask + distilled Na2S2O3

 

 

 

Graduated Cylinder + HCL

 

 

Procedure:

1.      The mixtures of various
concentrations of sodium thiosulfate are prepared.

2.      Na2S2O3
is placed in a conical flask, diluted with H2O to a desired
concentration.

3.      5ml of 2mol/l HCL is added, and the
conical flask is agitated to ensure mixing of the reactants.

4.      The time for the cross to disappear
is recorded

5.      The experiment is repeated with different
Na2S2O3 concentrations, until desired amount
of trials is reached.

Methods
(Anticipated problems & Methodology notes):

Initially the agitation was attempted to be done by a
stirring rod, but the method was quickly abandoned as the conical flask used
was too small, causing the stirring to be overly difficult, the used method was
a quick “circular” motion agitation of the conical flask, the agitation was
done in the same manner in every experiment to assure that the agitation did not
cause different experimental outcomes than previous trials.
The use of magnetic stirrer was suggested during the lab, but the idea was
quickly abandoned, due to experimental method focusing on observation of a
cross which was drawn under the conical flask, a magnetic stirrer would have
made it extremely hard to estimate if the cross was still visible at the lower
concentrations of Na2S2O3.

During the experiment, effort was made to decrease any
chances of liquid droplets staying on the side of the conical flask when HCL
was added to the flask, and the liquids were poured at a slow pace to decrease
the chances of additional air bubbles appearing in the measuring
cylinders. 

In dilution 5 the volume of sodium thiosulfate used was
changed from 2mL to 3 mL as it has proven to be too difficult to measure out
the 2mL with the used measuring cylinder, to assure that the same measuring
cylinder was used during the whole experiment, 3mL was used instead, and the
amount of diluent was also increased by 1mL, to assure equal ratio between 2mL
sodium thiosulfate and 18mL diluent (water, and 3mL sodium thiosulfate and 17mL
of diluent.

As the stop clock used was operated by the same person
watching for the cross to disappear, an uncertainty of ±0.2s was assigned the
acquired time data, to account for human reflexes and reaction time.

Raw Data:  
Quantitative Data + (Lab Notes):

During the experiment, the same person was used as the
observer & timekeeper, and the same person agitated the solution, to assure
that the method is repeated in as close manner to other trials as possible.

During the first trial of dilution no.1 it was determined
that the agitation method had to be changed, as the conical flask was too small
to agitate the mixture with a stirring rod, therefore the trial data was
discarded, and trial 1 was repeated, this time the whole conical flask was
shaken in a “circular” motion to achieve the desired agitation.

In all trials the conical flask used was of the same brand
and model, to ensure the same volume and “thickness” of the liquid in the
conical flask, therefore the visibility of drawn cross.

During Dilution no.1 Trial 2, the used thermometer has
changed, due to fact that the digital display was scratched and proved to be
hard to read.

During Dilution no.4 Trial 3, the recorded time was
approximately 2-4 seconds after the cross has disappeared, due to the
timekeeper missing the stop button on the stop clock.

During Dilution no.5 only two trials were conducted as each
trial has taken approximately 10 minutes, and the lab time was limited.

Quantitative
Data:

Dilution no.

V(Na2S2O3) / ±0.5 mL

V(H2O) / ±0,20 mL

Vtotal after mixing / ±
mL

V(HCl) ±0,20 mL

1

20

0

25

5

2

15

5

25

5

3

10

10

25

5

4

5

15

25

5

5

3

17

25

5

 

Dilution no. 1

Trial no.

Time for mark to disappear /  ± 0.2 s

T / 
± 0.1 °C

1

28.3

18.5

2

29.0

21.8

3

28.4

21.8

 

Dilution no. 2

Trial no.

Time for mark to disappear /  ± 0.2 s

T / 
± 0.1 °C

1

39.1

21.5

2

39.6

21.4

3

41.8

21.2

 

Dilution no. 3

Trial no.

Time for mark to disappear /  ± 0.2 s

T / 
± 0.1 °C

1

70.1

21.6

2

64.4

21.1

3

64.5

21.3

 

Dilution no. 4

Trial no.

Time for mark to disappear /  ± 0.2 s

T / 
± 0.1 °C

1

149.4

21.3

2

150.7

21.5

3

152.5

21.6

 

Dilution no. 5

Trial no.

Time for mark to disappear /  ± 02 s

T / 
± 0.1 °C

1

612.78

21.6

2

611.71

21.6

 

1
Owen, S. (2014), Chemistry for the IB Diploma Second Edition, Cambridge
University Press, United Kingdom, pages 246-247

In an immense advantage over even the

In Ex Machina, Alex Garland portrays the dangers of AI in the unbridled intelligence that good AI would most likely possess. Ava is able to instantly distinguish a lie from the truth as shown with her interactions with Caleb and her ability to tell that Nathan was not going to let her go as he said he would. AI has such an immense advantage over even the minds of the greatest thinkers on the face of the planet. Artificial intelligence would be able to easily overwhelm a population of humans with their superior intelligence. Even without having a body, a network connected AI would be able to decimate humanity.Elon Musk gave a speech at the Code Conference in which he mentioned the idea of a neural lace in order to govern the behavior of a general AI. The neural lace would be a device implanted in one’s brain with the power to send and receive massive amounts of information, at a much higher rate of data transfer than the fastest keyboard typists and the quickest speakers combined. Elon’s vision for this is so that everyone has one and everyone has the ability to decide how artificial intelligence behaves. If 90% of the population wants the AI to start working on the solution to The Twin Prime Conjecture1, then the AI will put it’s processing power towards that task. If the majority of humans wanted to end humankind (which I doubt they would), the artificial intelligence does their bidding. The biggest part of this is so that the power of AI does not lie in one person’s hands, the hands of few, or in no ones. Elon mentions, “I don’t love the idea of being a house cat, but what’s the solution? I think one of the solutions that seems maybe the best is to add an AI layer”, when he is speaking about this AI layer he is talking about the neural tether that we would implant such that the AI is subject to our intentions, not the other way around, in which we become the AI’s house pet as Elon likes to say.AI has many benefits, the sky is the limit as far as what is accomplishable. Elon believes that AI is the number one risk to humanity in the next 100 years, and that AI is not that far off. He says that it would not even take a terminator-esque type of AI to destroy humanity, but even one connected to the network could destroy humanity; it could hack into vital data servers, cut off power, launch missiles, start wars. It would not take an AI like Eva to destroy us, an AI that is comprised of a server room would be able to decimate humanity without us taking the precautions necessary to manage and control a general AI.

This object controller, which is the core

This
system provides network operators with a centralized logical control and
flexible programming interfaces which greatly promote the capabilities of
network automated management and control.

        A software defined network comprises of
three layers, the infrastructure layer, control layer and application layer.
The infrastructure layer includes network elements which can provide network
traffic, acting as the object controller, which is the core component of the
SDN network carrying out important tasks of controlling network traffic.

        The control layer has the SDN
controller, which is the core component of the SDN network carrying out
important tasks of controlling network traffic. The application layer includes
various applications. The southbound interface Data Controller Plane interface
(D-CPI) is responsible for exchanging data between the SDN controller and the
network element.

        ‘The northbound interface A-CPI
(Application-Controller Plane Interface) is responsible for providing the
upper-level application with the channel exchange to obtain the underlying
network resource information and send data to the lower-level network. SDN
provides a good platform with its programmability to introduce AI into networks
of communication. it uses programming application interface to send powerful
programming instructions to the network device.

        With AI, network managers can schedule
an automated intelligent business orchestrator, it can also program the AI-optimized
network strategy and automatically compile them into the task script, then
assign them into the network allocation tasks with the application programming
interface (API). Network managers can also automatically collect network
statistics information to lay a solid foundation for continuous network
optimization. If necessary, some new functionalities can also be added
intelligently through the SDN application for the network environment. 

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