Personnel proper employee payment and financial incentivesPersonnel proper employee payment and financial incentives






Management Final Exam

and Reflection

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of the Virgin Islands


After looking
back at everything we have covered throughout my time in this course, I
realized how much concepts I have learned that are integral to my success if I
were ever to have the responsibility of managing personnel. With that being
said, I do plan on owning my own business in the future, so the information I
have learned in this course will give me solid direction on how to manage the
human capital I may have in the future in order to ensure that that stay
motivated and operate at the highest levels of productivity possible. Not only
will this be such a great benefit to the business by increasing efficiency and
keeping customer satisfaction high, but it will also make my employees’ time
working under me an enjoyable and fulfilling one.

The things I
have learned going through this class covers many different aspects of human
resource management (HRM).  Across the
chapters covered, I worked my way through multiple topics stemming from these
nine key points of focus: the basics of
human resource management, equal opportunity and law, human resource strategies
and analysis, job analysis and the talent management process, personnel
planning and recruitment, employee testing and selection, interviewing
candidate, proper employee payment and financial incentives and lastly, labor
relations and collective bargaining. Each of these provides important
insight on the skills and knowledge one would need to be a successful human
resource manager (also known as a staff manager).

Introduction to HRM

The first
topic of focus that I came across aimed to give me a basic and general
understanding of what human resource management is and what is expected of a
human resource manager. Managers are involved in five basic functions:
planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. HR managers are
involved in all of these, but show specific focus in the staffing element. Here
we can see that HR managers must show special attention to acquisition,
training, performance appraisal, provision of incentives and benefits and
compensation of employees, as well as their concerns regarding health, safety, fairness
and labor relations. I also learned that a line manager looks towards HR
managers for advice and assistance on areas like recruitment, hiring and
compensation. Line managers also have their own human resource duties, which
include: training and development of employees, controlling labor costs,
creating and maintaining department morale, protecting employees’ health and
physical condition, fostering cooperation and communication, and more.

Equal Opportunity and Law

The topic of
equal opportunity and law focused on laws that were passed in order to protect
employees from harassment, inequality and discrimination in the workplace.  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids
employers from discriminating on the basis of race, religion, color or sex. The
Equal Pay Act of 1963 forbids discrimination in pay on the basis of sex when
jobs involve equal work, are performed under similar working conditions, and
require the same level of skill, effort, and responsibility. The Age Discrimination in Employment
Act of 1967 forbids discrimination against employees between the ages of 40-65.
The pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 prohibits using pregnancy, childbirth
or other related medical conditions as means of discrimination in the
workplace. The Americans with Disabilities Act forbids discrimination against
qualified disabled individuals. These are just some of laws passed to
counteract unfairness and discrimination in the workplace.  When companies fail to practice the mandates
of these laws, employees and potential employees may have a right to take legal
action against them.

is another issue that employees need to be protected from in the workplace. Harassment
is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other
verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that may affect an individual’s
status of employment and employment decisions regarding him/her, interfere with
work performance and create a hostile, intimidating or offensive work environment.
 There are three main ways someone can
prove sexual harassment if it were to happen. First is Quid Pro Quo, which
means that one must prove that rejecting a supervisor’s advances adversely
affects them. Second is proving that there is a hostile environment created by
supervisors. Third is proving that there has been a hostile environment created
by coworkers and nonemployees. 

Job Analysis and Talent Management

Talent management is a goal-oriented process of planning, recruitment,
development, management, and compensation of employees. When mangers take a
talent management perspective, they understand that its five aspects are parts
of a single interrelated process. They make sure that management decisions like
staffing, training, and pay are goal-directed. They consistently use the same
profile of experience, knowledge, traits, and competencies for recruitment,
selection, training, appraisal, and payment decisions. They proactively manage
their employees. Lastly, they integrate and coordinate all the talent
management functions.

To be effective at talent management, managers must understand job
analysis. Job analysis is determining the duties of open positions as well as
the characteristics of the people who best suit each position. To do this,
managers would have to acquire on or more of the six following types of
information. First is information regarding the job’s actual work activities
and how, when, and why the worker performs each activity. The second is
information regarding human behavior that the job requires, such as communicating
and lifting weights. The third is information regarding tools and materials
involved in the work. The fourth is information regarding the job’s performance
standards. The fifth is information regarding work conditions, schedule, and
incentives. The last one is information regarding the knowledge, skills, and
personal aptitudes necessary for peak performance in the position. There are
different methods managers can use to collect this information. They can
conduct interviews, make observations, keep participant diary/logs, and use
quantitative analysis techniques like the position analysis questionnaire and
the Department of Labor Procedure. After gathering such information, managers
can then create fitting job descriptions for each job position.

Personnel Planning and Recruitment

recruitment is very important when making sure mangers are higher the best
qualified person possible for the position. Having a larger pool of candidates
to choose from ensures than mangers are giving themselves more options when it
comes to the selection process. Smaller candidate pools can result in the
selection of an individual because of the necessity to fill a position rather
than his or her qualifications.

Managers can
recruit candidate both with the company as well as outside. Each of these has
its positives and negatives. There are four main positives of sourcing for
candidates internally. The first is that already knowing a candidates strengths
and weaknesses is a very good asset during selection.  The second is that current employees may me
more committed to the company. The third is that morale can rise if employees
see promotions as rewards for loyalty and hard work. The fourth is that
internal candidates may require much less and training than outside candidates.
Moving on from the positives, there are also three main drawbacks of hiring
internally. The first is that employees who applied for an open position and
didn’t get it may become discontent. The second is that it may be a waste of
time to go through the entire recruitment process and interviews when managers
may already know who should be hired in their place. The third is that
inbreeding can occur when managers keep hiring people who share their similar
ethics, visions, and personal traits.

When it comes
to finding outside candidates, managers can recruit using the internet (social
networks and dot-jobs domains), texting, advertising, virtual job fairs,
college campus recruitments, internships, referrals and walk-ins. Each of these
can have their positives and negatives.  Web-based recruiting may generate the most continuous
responses at low costs, but it comes with to potential problems. Fewer older
people and some minorities do not use the internet as much as others, so the numbers
may be disproportionate. The second problem is getting an overflow of
applications; however, this can be mitigated using prescreening. Referrals
prove to be very effective at generating qualified candidates but should be
avoided if morale is low in the company and because relying on them may be

Employee Testing and Selection

It is
important for managers to be careful during selection for three main reasons.
The first is that employees with the right skills and attitudes will perform
better in the company and be less of an obstruction. The second is that
recruiting and hiring employees can be very costly, so getting it right the
first time cuts the future cost if a replacement. The third is that negligent
hiring can result in legal consequences. 
The aim of employee selection is to assure that the person is a perfect
fit for the job. This means matching the knowledge, skills, abilities and
competencies required for the job with those possessed by the candidate. The candidate must also fit with the
company itself, carrying the same values as that of the company. There are many
different kinds of test that can be conducted in order to find the candidate.
These include: reliability tests, IQ tests, tests of motor and physical
abilities, personality tests, interest inventories, cognitive tests, achievement
tests, situational judgement tests, paper-and-pencil honesty tests,
graphologies and physical examinations. It should go without saying that
employers should avoid bias in the testing process. In addition to tests,
screening, background checks and reference checks. I would say that this topic
was probably the most difficult to grasp, because of the different kinds of
tests that I was unfamiliar with.

Interviewing Candidates

interview is much more than just a discussion. It is a procedure used to obtain
information from a person through oral inquiries and responses. There are
different ways an interview can be administered. Panel/board interviews are
where teams of interviewers (usually two to three) interview a single candidate
and combine their scores. The panel format enables interviewers to ask
follow-up questions which may result in more meaningful answers, however, some
candidates find this method more stressful than one-on-one interviews and may
inhibit responses. Some employers do interviews entirely over phone. These can
actually be more accurate than face-to-face interviews for judging an
applicant’s conscientiousness, intelligence, and interpersonal skills because
of its spontaneity and because neither employer nor candidate have to worry
about things like appearance or handshakes. Video based interviews are just
like face-to-face interviews with the convenience of a phone conference.  Despite what type of interview it is, it is
important that managers are carefully selecting which traits they are assessing
in their limited time and make clear what the actual position entails.

Pay for Performance and Financial

Money and
motivation is a very important topic to cover. First, pay for performance tying
a worker’s pay to their performance. This method of compensation is widely
popular, but it is more difficult than one might think. Also, this method may
not produce the best employee performance, especially when an employee is
contempt with their level of earnings. Many employees need more than up-front
money to motivate them to worker harder and more efficiently. This is where
incentive plans come in. Many incentive plans fail, so designing effective
programs is crucial.

important building blocks to a successful program are determining whether using
incentives makes sense, linking the incentive with your strategy, making sure
the program is motivational, setting complete standards, and being scientific
in terms of analyzing the effects of the incentive plan. The use of incentives
makes sense when motivation is not the problem, there is a clear relationship
between employee effort and the quantity/quality of output, employees can
control the work, and delays are few. Employers can make the incentive
motivational by making the reward attractive and support it with performance
feedback. They must set quality standards along with quantity standards. And lastly, managers must gather evidence and
analyze whether or not the incentive is contributing to performance and is cost


Looking back at
everything we have covered throughout my time in this course, I have realized
just how much concepts I have learned that are integral to my success if I were
ever to have the responsibility of managing personnel. I plan on owning my own
business in the future, so the information I have learned in this course will
give me what I need in order to manage the human capital I might have in the
future and ensure that that stay motivated and operate at the highest levels of
productivity possible. The knowledge I gained from this will greatly benefit me
when managing a business by increasing efficiency, keeping customer satisfaction
high, and making the employees’ time working under me an enjoyable and
fulfilling one.









Dessler, G.
(2017). Human resource management.
Boston: Pearson Higher Education