Philippines. Limited and underdeveloped graduate education. OnePhilippines. Limited and underdeveloped graduate education. One

Philippines.
There have been various government initiatives at conducting evaluations for
tertiary education in the Philippines. 

In
1948, a Joint Congressional Committee on Education was created. It was tasked
to investigate the country’s educational system and make recommendations for
the latter’s reorganization and development. The committee accomplished its
task by holding open forums and meetings across the country in which thousands
attended. The view that secondary education should not only prepare students
for college education but also for finding jobs was aired. The committee upheld
the view that while institutions of higher education should not confine
themselves to teaching and research, it must participate in community affairs
in order to help improve “community life” (Orata, 1974).

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In
1971, a report by the Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education
was submitted to the president. On this basis, then-President Ferdinand Marcos
“stressed that policy-making should link education with national goals” with
the goal of “meeting the needs of middle-level manpower.” In particular, he
issued the following calls: (1) Create “more scientific, technological,
technical, and vocational courses rather than the white-collar and
service-oriented professions;” (2) Make higher education “more coherent and
relevant” by changing structures, admission policies, curricula, and methods in
the educational system. This included stopping the proliferation of
institutions and the duplication of courses; (3) Decentralize administrative
structures for education; and (4) Provide scholarship programs for “scientific,
technological, and vocational technical courses where national manpower is in
demand” (Zwaenepoel, 1974).

Zwaenepoel
(1974) also mentions that “The Education Survey of 1973” which “stressed again
individual aspects of personality development in the ecology and his
participation in society as a productive and versatile citizen with relevance
to Philippine society.”

In
1992, the Congressional Commission on Education or EDCOM made a study of the
country’s educational system and found out that higher education in the country
is characterized by: (1) Large enrolment; (2) Imbalanced distribution; (3)
Underinvestment and poor quality; (4) A mismatch between programs and graduates
on the one hand and unemployment and society’s needs on the other; and (5)
Limited and underdeveloped graduate education. One of the EDCOM’s
recommendations is the creation of the Commission on Higher
Education(CHED)(Tayag, 2007).

 

Present condition.
In 2007, the International Qualifications Assessment Service of the Government
of Alberta, Canada described the challenges to the Philippine educational
system as an issue of “quantity versus quality”: (1) Questions are raised about
the quality provided by the 10-year basic education cycle; (2) The education
system is not reaching all children who should be going to elementary school,
as 10 per cent of them were not enrolled in 2002; (3) Class sizes in elementary
and high school range from 33 to more than 65 students; (4) A 2003 high-school
readiness test given to 1.3 million Grade 6 students resulted in only 18 per
cent passing the competency level for English, 8 per cent for Math, and 10 per
cent for Science; (5) Insufficient schools, classrooms, textbooks, desks and
qualified teachers, especially in rural areas; and (6) Higher education is
expanding while private institutions are proliferating (2007).

In
addition, Maligalig and Albert (2008) discussed how the second goal of the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which is to achieve universal primary
education in 2015 may not be possible. They explained that trends in education
indicators for monitoring the second MDG suggest that Philippines may probably
not meet the target on achieving universal primary education. They commented on
the lack of “lack of comparability of figures from reporting systems, on the
need to improve dissemination of education statistics, and on the need to
properly link data with policy through a systematic monitoring and evaluation
system are also discussed.”

However,
in a report submitted to UNESCO’s Education for All (EFA) it was revealed that
the results of the National Achievement Test (NAT), was the Philippines’
measure of education quality, has been improving. The elementary national mean
percentage score was still 6 percentage points away from the targeted 75
percent with 68.9 MPS in SY 2012-2013. It was also reported that the government
has been allocating bigger education budgets each year since 2010 to close the
input gaps in education. DepEd reported that gaps have been closed in terms of
provision of classrooms, seats, and textbooks in public schools. It also stated
that DepEd has also increased the number of teachers with more than 102,623
teacher items created and supplemented by 43,204 volunteer kindergarten and
LGU-hired teachers (“Education for All 2015 National Review Report: Philippines).