Prejudice 2012). Prejudices can either be positive

Prejudice and discrimination have been prevalent
throughout human history. Prejudice has to do with the inflexible and
irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one group about another,
while discrimination refers to behaviors directed against another
group. Being prejudiced usually means having preconceived beliefs about groups
of people or cultural practices (Nier and Garetner 2012). Prejudices can either
be positive or negative—both forms are usually preconceived and difficult to
alter. The negative form of prejudice can lead to discrimination, although it
is possible to be prejudiced and not act upon the attitudes. Those who practice
discrimination do so to protect opportunities for themselves by denying access
to those whom they believe do not deserve the same treatment as everyone else
(Sue 2007).

         It is
unfortunate that prejudices against racial and ethnic minorities exit, and
continue to flourish, despite the “informed” modern mind. One well?known example of discrimination based
on prejudice involves the Jews, who have endured mistreatment and persecution
for thousands of years. The largest scale attempt to destroy this group of
people occurred during World War II, when millions of Jews were exterminated in
German concentration camps in the name of Nazi ideals of “racial purity.” The
story of the attempted genocide, or systematic killing, of the Jews as
well as many other examples of discrimination and oppression throughout human
history has led sociologists to examine and comment upon issues of race and
ethnicity (A + E Networks 2017).

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         Watching
the short story of, “A Conversation with Asian-Americans on Race” made me
realized how lucky I am to be brought up here in Phoenix, Arizona. Growing up I
was surrounded by a very diverse group of people. From my friends to my teachers,
all had other nationality other than American so I did not get put on the spot.

Although there was this one time that I attended a school that was made up of
mostly white American kids and I was called names but I remember that those
kids still spent time and play with me so I did not put it into heart that it
was raciest. From the short story, one woman said that her parents wanted her
to sound more American over the phone and in person, I find that somewhat
relatable because it’s opposite for me (Gandbhir and Stephenson 2016). I was told I sound very white and
that it was surprising because I look very Asian and was not born in the
states.

         At the
beginning of the Race Implicit Association Test, I was asked how I felt about
African Americans compare to European Americans and I answered that I was
neutral between the two but feel slightly more toward European Americans than
African Americans. By the end of the test, my result so that the data suggest
no automatic preference between African Americans and European Americans. But
if I were to respond faster when African Americans and Good are assigned to the
same response key than when European Americans and Good were classified with
the same key. My score would be described as an automatic preference for
African Americans over European Americans.

         It is
unfortunate that prejudices against racial and ethnic minorities exit, and
continue to flourish, despite the “informed” modern mind. One well?known example of discrimination based
on prejudice involves the Jews, who have endured mistreatment and persecution
for thousands of years. The largest scale attempt to destroy this group of
people occurred during World War II, when millions of Jews were exterminated in
German concentration camps in the name of Nazi ideals of “racial purity.” The
story of the attempted genocide, or systematic killing, of the Jews as well as
many other examples of discrimination and oppression throughout human history
has led sociologists to examine and comment upon issues of race and ethnicity.

         Sociologists
and psychologists hold that some of the emotionality in prejudice stems from
subconscious attitudes that cause a person to ward off feelings of inadequacy
by projecting them onto a target group. By using certain people as
scapegoats—those without power who are unfairly blamed—anxiety and uncertainty
are reduced by attributing complex problems to a simple cause: “Those people are
the source of all my problems.” Social research across the globe has shown that
prejudice is fundamentally related to low self?esteem. By hating certain groups (in this case, minorities), people are
able to enhance their sense of self?worth
and importance.

         To date,
solutions to prejudice that emphasize change at the individual level have not
been successful. In contrast, research sadly shows that even unprejudiced
people can, under specific conditions of war or economic competition, become
highly prejudiced against their perceived “enemies.” Neither have attempts at
desegregation in schools been successful. Instead, many integrated schools have
witnessed the formation of ethnic cliques and gangs that battle other groups to
defend their own identities. Changes in the law have helped to alter some
prejudiced attitudes. Without changes in the law, women might never have been
allowed to vote, attend graduate school, or own property. And racial
integration of public facilities in America might never have occurred. Still,
laws do not necessarily change people’s attitudes. In some cases, new laws can
increase antagonism toward minority groups.

         It’s no
secret that unconscious biases penetrate various realms of society, from hiring
decisions to medical care and even foul calls in the NBA. But what about
implicit bias our everyday lives? Does it play a role in the neighborhoods we
choose to live in, the establishments we patronize, the shows we watch?
Implicit bias refers to attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding,
actions and decisions in an unconscious manner, according to the Kirwan
Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, which publishes an annual
Implicit Bias Review. It’s different from suppressed thoughts we might conceal
to keep the peace; it’s the opposite of explicit bias, which refers to
attitudes or beliefs that we fully admit to (Grinberg 2015). Recent claims of
overt and covert discrimination on college campuses and in policing raise the
question: How does someone’s unconscious reaction to people of a different
race, religion or sexuality influence their judgment and behavior? When CNN
asked psychologists and social scientists to explain how implicit bias
manifests in everyday life, many were reluctant to commit to an answer, because
it’s hard to rule out alternative explanations. “Some biases seem
obviously wrong, like treating (equally qualified) people differently in hiring
or promotions,” said Calvin Lai, director of research for Harvard’s
Project Implicit. “Everyday biases are hard to wrap our heads around
because they’re so much more personal, and you can point to other reasons”
(Grinberg 2015).

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