Previous technique to explore the early screeningPrevious technique to explore the early screening

Previous studies have revealed the technique for early cancer detection by the methods of well-known diagnostic tools such as chest radiography, sputum cytology, computed tomography scanning, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging which have cons as complicated and quite expensive (Ford & Farah, 2013). Furthermore, some radiation can give harm to the patient’s health. Thus it is not recommended to apply regularly. Besides the employment of equipment for detection, another site for screening comes from biological samples such as blood, feces, urine, DNA, saliva and biopsy tissue which remains the conventional method for the certainty of the cancer presents. These techniques are consent form needed and time-consuming to be completed. To date, metabolomics and biomarker have been a new emerging technique to explore the early screening of cancer as presented in several studies from (Patel & Ahmed, 2015) (Pesch et al., 2014) (Henry & Hayes, 2012). A case-study approach was conducted to conduct this exploratory study. It was decided that the best method to adopt for this investigation was through the volatile organic compound analysis utilizing in vitro cancer cell line established from the primary cell line. Previous investigations of (Lavra et al., 2015) and (Sponring, Filipiak, Ager, & Schubert, 2010) have reported that through cell culture method for VOCs results, they have emerged the proven outcome for the screening cancer. Previous investigations of (Lavra et al., 2015), (Sponring et al., 2010) and (Tang et al., 2017) have reported that the importance of cancer cell lines as in vitro models in cancer as serve as low-cost screening podium and facilitate when implementing outside of the living body utilizing petri dish or culture flask. Prior to achieving the target, cell culture applied to refer to the steps provided in guideline as demonstrated in (Geraghty et al., 2014). Lung cancer cell line NCI-H2087 application from a study of (Sponring et al., 2009) has revealed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from that particular cell line applied from the cell culture technique. Preliminary work on breast cancer of T-47D, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 as cancerous cell line compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) was undertaken by (Silva et al., 2017) to discriminate the VOCs produced from both of groups as to highlight the cancer biomarker. A recent study by (Filipiak et al., 2010) has demonstrated that application of A549 cancer cell line parallels to primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) and human fibroblasts (hFB) for confirming the existence of VOC, which could be utilized in future for biomarkers.