first emerged in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt when he first established the
psychological laboratory, this laboratory was also associated with E. B.
Titchener. The first school was known as
Structuralism, as stated in the book it was the psychological approach that
emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements. Structuralism
prepared volunteers to deliberately watch, interpret, analyze, and portray
their own sensations, mental pictures, and passionate responses. The aim for
this school was to break down mental processes into the most simple and basic way.
To do this Wilhelm Wundt and E. B. Titchener used introspection which was the
examination of someone’s mental and emotional state.
second school of psychology was founded in 1856 by Sigmund Freud. He believed that
the human mind was made of three components: the id, the sense of self, and the
superego. Freud became convinced that many of his patient’s complaints was due
to depression, stress, nervousness, etc., and this was due to conflicts and
emotional traumas that had developed from early childhood. The psychoanalysis
therapy goal was to help people release any stress, depression, anxiety, etc. to
make the human mind conscious. Other major theorists are Anna Freud (daughter of
Sigmund Freud) who was the founder of child psychanalysis, Carl Jung who also researched
in the human mind and believed it was unconscious, and lastly Erick Erickson
who researched human development through the entire lifespan.
Psychology is the third school of psychology that was inaugurated by John Piaget
in 1936. The cognitive studies the mental process of how people think, remember,
understand, solve problems, explain experiences, form beliefs etc. Piaget did
not only want to test children by the way they speak, write or think because of
their I.Q. but mainly to see their development. His goal with using the
cognitive psychology was to see how people’s thoughts and emotions could/would
affect their actions, emotions, and choices. He wanted to explain how children
think different than adults and that a child may think different because of
what they know and what they experience in their everyday environment.