Q1: Since the publication of Marco Polo’s account The Travels of Marco Polo there have always been debates regarding the accuracy of his account. Maybe that is because his account is written by someone other than himself, a man named Rustichello of Pisa known for Arthurian romance writings. This account was written while Marco Polo was spending time in the Genoese prison in Genoa with the cellmate, Rustichello. Rustichello wrote The Travels of Marco Polo as a ghostwriter, listening to Polo’s speak upon his voyage. While Rustichello added his Christianity and adventurism touch throughout the account even though Marco Polo had laid down the specific details about his travels to Rustichello. Marco Polo’s account wasn’t productive, or courageous enough for many individuals liking, these men felt the need to innovate more into Polo’s account. Thinking it would offer more diverse to make the account extra interesting for readers of all different sorts. Another reason for many individuals to be skeptical about Polo’s account is that there is a vast spread of versions of Polo’s account. In total there are one hundred and forty various versions of Polo’s account each just being slightly distinctive. Reasons for there being widespread of versions of his account is that individuals translated the account from different languages such as French, Italian, and Latin. Another reason being, by different individuals added irrelevant information to Marco’s account making it quite misinforming composing many people to question the account and what is real. Additionally, when the men were returning to Venice, Italy their family members had a hard time recognizing who they even were. The men were dressed in Asian style textiles making them indistinguishable to their families. Beginning said with the way they have dressed also, that the three men upon return had an easier time speaking Persian, Turkey, or Mongolian languages rather than the original language of Italian. The men had spent so much time in these Eastern civilizations they forgot their back routes. Problems that arose within Marco Polo’s account is that many of the landscapes, locations, and settings he had witnessed during his travels quite a few people had a hard time relating to him and what he’s depicting during this time period. Many of these individuals who are skeptical about the account are because they didn’t understand exactly what Marco was mentioning in his account. This is because these skeptical individuals weren’t experiencing the things Marco Polo was informing them upon within the account. Furthermore, at times including Marco Polo, didn’t even fully understand what he was experiencing and observing himself at times. Marco Polo’s account has been redeemed in many ways as a historical account. Firstly, different historians stepped up to support Marco Polo and his account that indeed Marco and his family, in fact, did make it passed the (Greater Sea) known as the Black Sea leading into Eastern cultures.Q2. The account of Marco Polo is unique in many diverse ways. To begin with, Marco Polo was a young traveler from Europe venturing to Eastern Asia. His voyage was significantly excruciating along with being a very long lasting journey making his account extravagant and entertaining for readers at this time. Polo encountered many different cultures and peoples along the way that additionally, tied into making individuals endure for more of the account. While many travelers going on explorations didn’t go exploring at the age of seventeen like Marco. Yet, Marco was different he was taken on the journey with his father Niccolo Polo and his uncle Maffeo Polo after his mother had passed away. The men didn’t know when they were to return to Venice, Italy from the intensive voyage to Emperor Kublai Khan. Marco Polo had a perspective that is unique compared to those of his time by reading the account rarely ever did Marco ever did you hear the man speak upon his personal anxiety or apprehension during the voyage to Emperor Kublai Khan. Additionally, after Marco became sick and had to rest in the mountains for almost a year, while relentlessly still proceeding onward showing his eagerness to meet Kublai Khan. Marco Polo was a young boy whose uncle and father had him join along their voyage that they had once started before. While reading the account you can tell the interest the young merchant Marco has himself within exploring Asia and the other stops along the way. Personally, I believe with Polo having a ghostwriter makes the accuracy of the account to be questionable until intellectual artifacts have been established and matched up with Marco Polo’s account. “Being mentioned the battle against the Mongols and the Sung Dynasty that Marco Polo, his father, and his uncle supposedly all took a part in while the battle took place in 1279.”(McClain lecture) Even though, the Mongol-Sung war took place almost three years prior to the men arriving into China. This has made many individuals question Marco Polo and the accuracy of his account including me. Although within his account there are many more accurate artifacts than inaccurate ones.Q3. Marco Polo’s account impacted World History by connecting the Western civilization with the Eastern civilization, also by establishing a well-off trade route between the twos land, and also by protecting their borders. Prior to the Polo family exploring the Eastern culture people within Europe had no idea what lied in the Eastern planes. The information Marco Polo provided within his account helped many individuals at this time to more fully understand the Eastern culture. This was when Marco’s account was just being mass copied and produced, but this was still before the printing press. Each copy was hand printed and sold, every copy just a little different from the next making for various versions. Furthermore, writing this account also helped historians nowadays recognize the previous artifacts of their time, additionally benefiting the historians’ studies. Within Polo’s account, he is describing how they traveled, by foot, camel, and boat along with the different ways that they were directed to arrive in China. Further down the road, this account will inspire a man named Christopher Columbus at the end of the fourteenth century beginning in the fifteenth century to try to follow Polo’s account to Eastern Asia. Only to find out Christopher Columbus had sailed to the Americas. Which later on Christopher Columbus’s copy of Polo’s account of The Travels of Marco Polo was found, and within the account, it had Christopher Columbus’s personal side notes and manuscript written inside the pages.The impacts of Marco Polo’s account is that it makes for a unique perspective because once Polo’s account was being widely read many individuals didn’t believe everything that they were reading the account. In addition, at the same time people were reading Polo’s account and becoming very inspired to travel for themselves to observe what Polo had been mentioning among his account. Even after an abundant amount of years later, the account had been written and someone individuals are still using it as a map for exploration, as an example Christopher Columbus. Additionally, Marco Polo spoke greatly about the Asian culture in his account, the words he spoke upon the high power of Kublai Khan as if he had not a single bad thing to say about the emperor. Also, mentioning about the extremely well trained military force that the Khan empowers. Q4. Marco Polo tells us that the Mongols were very advanced and diverse from the Western civilizations compared to the Eastern. To begin with, the Chinese inventions and the use of paper money instead of silver and other metal coins was defiantly a new sight to see for merchants like the Polo family. For Polo to explain how the money was cut and made by using the mulberry-tree bark and silk-warms was interesting to me, I believe we would have never known how our paper money was initially started and created if it wasn’t for Marco Polo. Also, I didn’t know that the Chinese were the first to create paper money. The paper currency made it the Mongols capable of taxing upon different goods and services. Secondly, marriage between Mongols was the widespread practice of polygamy where the male could choose the amount of how many wives the man would like to marry. Also, their marriages would take place when females are at a very young age of twelve to thirteen while males marrying these females around fourteen or fifteen. These marriages are usually arranged with females having no choice, also that sex is obtained from until marriage. Which was different to Marco and his European customs. Also, the discovery of burning hot coals which the Chinese have been using coal to; start fires to light, and warm the bathhouses which they could get the coal to burn for a day at a time if lucky. Which at this time rarely any Europeans knew about this type of black long-lasting coal. If it wasn’t for Marco Polo’s travel and attentiveness who knows how long it would have taken for these Eastern ideas to travel towards the Western cities and for them to adopt these new inventions. Additionally, the Mongols and their communication system were quite impressive to Marco Polo and the men. Being able to communicate by letter between different parts of the community by horseback with different stations set up miles apart. This was just another new invention Marco would bring back from the Chinese Mongols to the Europeans in Venice, Italy. Marco Polo had great experiences with the Mongols by working in there military force, treating him as their community treats their own. Marco Polo did much work for Kublai Khan with helping protect the Mongols. As many Europeans saw the Mongols as savages, outrageous barbaric individuals with a strict military drawn force behind them. Polo had a different outlook upon them, by being raised in the culture he felt as if he was apart of there military community. Q5. The perspective that Marco Polo provides within his account upon Kublai Khan is that Marco had very little things to criticize about his style of ruling while other may have thought differently. However, one of the perspectives that the account provides is that Kublai Khan has a sense of trust within the Polo family. He could be dictating and a very aggressive ruler. The sacrifice that is prevalent throughout the account is embodied with Khan’s successful military tactics, additionally his advanced style of communication. Kublai Khan and a great range of his empire making sure they are as attentive as possible making the best for the Mongol empire. The Chinese populace was evolved my different individuals including others than the Mongols within their empire. Just like Marco Polo from Venice, Italy they provided him with great new inventions, pay, and provided for him. In return, they had a hard time letting him and his family leave to return home. Making Polo skeptical as to when they need to leave so that they’ll still have the opportunity to return to Italy. Marco and his family were so accustomed to the Mongol culture, Marco had grown up living his adult life in their empire. Marco Polo had been gone from Italy for so many years that once he had returned to the West he had an abundance of new innovations and technologies. The technology of the compass was brought back with Marco, where he had been shown this invention in the Eastern Chinese. Initially helping with map making that later on the Jewish used. Additionally, brought back paper along with paper money. Where Marco came across this development and type of paper currency was in the Mongol Empire. Knowing now how to make paper money Marco Polo will bring back this invention making the Europeans life easier. No longer having to carry around a large pocket of coins. Also, paper money is cheaper to make and easier. The adventure Marco Polo was taken upon by his family changed the world in so much more way than Marco Polo probably ever expected. While the account was being written I doubt he thought people in the 21st century would still be reading and analyzing his account.