Rashun J. Miles Historical Debates Paper SW

Rashun J. Miles
Historical Debates Paper SW 530?November
7, 2017

Mycobacterium
Bovis: Michigan’s Silent Killer and Eradication

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Note: I am
attempting to deal with two issues – mycobacterium
bovis and mycobacterium tuberculosis. The
bulk of this paper will address mycobacterium
bovis. I will write a brief introduction on the history of mycobacterium tuberculosis. The reason I have included mycobacterium tuberculosis in this paper is because the
two diseases are closely related and, in some ways, it seemed irresponsible if
I didn’t at least broach the issue, as it is a current issue that is occurring
in the state I now call home. The debates This paper has a two-pronged
approach. The two-prong approach is not a way to problematize an already
complicated issue. This is a way to diffuse a complex disease and place it with
in a historical landscape of infectious disease and policy. It has been 100
years since the federal government established a Bovine TB Eradication Program.
This program was an attempt to identify places “pockets” of tuberculosis and
where there was none. Human tuberculosis as also a problem that I hope to fully
explore in the next paper.

Abstract

In 1900, airborne
diseases accounted for a quarter of all deaths in the United States. Of those
deaths, about ten percent could be traced back to human tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) that had occurred from
contact to exposure to contaminated cattle meat or unpasteurized milk and/or
cheese (Crimmins & Condran, 1983; Palmer & Walters, 2011). Mycobacterium bovis and eventual tuberculosis was
from exposure to the mycobacterium bovis (Roswrum
& Ranney, 1973). Robert Koch discovery of tuberculosis informed and incited
debate. While there aren’t numbers that can point to the exact number of
animals that have died from tuberculosis, recently in Michigan completely herds
had to be killed, which decimates the local economy and while some parts of
Michigan are designated tuberculosis free, it is still hard to shake the stigma.
This paper sheds light on some of the silences with a particular light on the
ways in which past silences are being reproduced in contemporary times. This
will begin with

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the Act 45 1988 and the
passing of the Act. The subsequent outbreak of tuberculosis sparked other
initiatives and was to improve and protect the people most vulnerable.

Introduction

In 1881 Robert Koch
discovered the bacteria that causes tuberculosis in humans and shortly
thereafter, in 1898, he identified mycobacterium
bovis, the tuberculosis primary found in other mammals. Since Koch’s
discovery, there have been astounding advances in technology and tuberculosis
treatment and preventions. Despite these technological and epidemiological
advance, worldwide more than two million die from tuberculosis annually. While
this paper will focus on the domestic issues of tuberculosis, this disease has
no borders or boundaries and claims millions of lives every year. This is
important to note because, as I will highlight in the subsequent section, the
division of scientific knowledge and scientific disagreement can be at the cost
of a life – or millions.

Unfortunately, we
continue to see similar discussions today about global warming. I am not
attempting to engage in an anachronistic debate, as I can image 100 years from
now, people willhavenegativeviewsonthethingsthatwillseemsoobviousthen.
ThedebateIwouldliketo enter is one that challenges the ways in which laws are
created and the people who influence how those laws are enforced. Historically,
it seems to be swayed by political affiliation, public status, and monetary
influence.

This paper will explore
the historical landscape of tuberculosis in the United States as well as past
and current legislation that affects the funding and ostensible goal of
eradication. While the landscape has many actors and moving parts, there are
two consistent figures – mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterium tuberculosis. These two figures have
also been central in debate for hundreds of years. For this paper, I will
concentrate on the past 150 years. It has been through Koch’s work, despite his
earlier assumptions which included his position that mycobacterium bovine and mycobacterium tuberculosis were one in the same, and the
passion and dedication of researchers and advocates that has aided progress and
disseminate information and shape law and decision making. In the last decade,
there has been recent outbreaks of mycobacterium
bovis in Michigan. Theses outbreaks have been silenced in media coverage
and has led to local Michigan farmers being prosecuted for selling infected
cattle. I would like to explore the recent outbreaks and illegal activity that
has occurred and how silence is creating an

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unnecessary financial
burden on Michigan farmers and jeopardizes the livelihood and health of
Michigan residents, and postpones the time required to regain trust among
farmers in other states and the public-at large.

Historical
Antecedents

The
Discovery

In 1900, airborne
diseases accounted for a quarter of all deaths in the United States. Of those
deaths, about ten percent could be traced back to human tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) that had occurred from
contact to exposure to contaminated cattle meat or unpasteurized milk and/or
cheese (Cimmins & Condran, 1983; Palmer & Walters, 2011). At that time,
there weren’t any laws in place that neither protected farmers nor the public
from contracting the disease. Koch’s discovery made the connection between the
thousands of deaths and tuberculosis. Despite this newfound public knowledge,
there was a scientific and political debate that impeded law and legislation to
move forward in order to lower infection rates and prevent the death of
hundreds of thousands of people. Mycobacterium
bovis and eventual tuberculosis was from exposure to the mycobacterium bovis (Ranney, 1963).?Debates

The debates circled
around whether humans could contract mycobacterium
bovis from animals, namely cattle; and whether the mycobacterium bovis bacteria was more infectious
than that of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Koch
argued that they were one in the same. He posited that the effect of both
bacteria had the same effect on the human body. Other scientists, namely
Emanuel Klein, Heneage Gibbs, Edmond Nocard, and Rheobald Smith, among others,
conducted experiments that ranged from inoculating calves with mycobacterium tuberculosis (Ernst, 1895) to rabbits being
inoculated with mycobacterium bovis (Cobbett,
1917) to scientifically illustrate the low rates of virulence from mycobacterium tuberculosis to the high virulence in mycobacterium bovis. These experiments were
supported by other (accidental) research. The relation between animal and human
tuberculosis was shown in a report that reported that on three separate
occasions, Pennsylvanian veterinarians had accidentally performed skin
inoculation while conducting post- mortem examinations (Ravenel, 1900). In all
the cases, all were infected and at a faster rate than mycobacterium bovis.

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In 1907, more than 20
twenty years later, Koch would finally succumb to scientific knowledge and
agreed that there was a difference between mycobacterium
bovis and mycobacterium tuberculosis, but
that there was little danger of mycobacterium
bovis been transferred to humans. Koch’a knowledge and notoriety worked
in his favor despite research that was counter to his position. Nine years
after his discovery, in 1890 more that 80% of doctors who had responded to a
survey said that they had seen a case of tuberculosis that could be linked to
milk consumption (Rosenkrantz,1985).

Advocacy

In 1907, veterinarian
Charles Lamb advocated for veterinarians to be on all public health boards.
Slowly, there was a shift in the ways in which the public and government viewed
health professionals. In 1905, Iowa began pasteurizing milk at 185 degrees
Fahrenheit. Ten years later, W.B Barney at the Livestock Sanitary Association
proclaimed that pasteurizing should be a national goal. His position was met
with moans and opposition as many thought that pasteurization would be an increased
cost to the customer as well as heat would ruin the taste of the milk and lower
nutritional value. (Rosenkrantz,1985).

Bovine
TB Eradication Program (1917)

This progression was
not met without considerable debate, lagging time and conflicting scientific
information. This federally program, which still exist today, was an attempt to
battle and wipe out a disease that was annually killing tens of thousands of
Americans. Prior to 1917, the inception of the Bovine TB Eradication Program,
there weren’t any laws or regulations that protected farmers or the public from
the disease. In terms of protection, for farmers I am specifically pointing to
compensation for loss of herds and public at large from this deadly disease in
the way of pasteurizing. In conjunction with other competing diseases that
compromised the immune system, in 1900 airborne diseases accounted for a
quarter of all deaths in the United States. Of those deaths, about ten percent
could be traced back to human tuberculosis (mycobacterium
tuberculosis) that had occurred from contact with and/or exposure to
contaminated cattle, meat, or unpasteurized milk and/or cheese (Crimmins and
Condran, 1983; Palmer & Walters, 2011). Even when an adequate test was
discovered to test for tuberculosis, controversy continued to ensue. The
debates swirled around the accuracy of the test. In New

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York. after
administering 34 tests to potential positive or exposure. 15 came back positive.
After

postmortem examination,
13 of the 15 was indeed positive (Stalheim & Moulton, 1986).

Bovine
TB Eradication Program (2017)

While the efforts of
the Bovine TB Eradication Program have made a marked difference in mortality
rates, the ways in which dairy and meat products are packaged a delivered in
rhe United States, and awareness about the disease, Michigan is still battling the
disease. Similar to the arguments that happened a hundred years ago regarding
funding and proponents of scientific knowledge, and silences, is happening
today. Under the current administration, there is a proposal to cut 4.3 billion
dollars.

Michigan:
TB Silence and Technology, and Technology

Currently four counties
(Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency and Oscoda) in Michigan are Modified Accredited
Advanced Zone (MAAZ). The five designated levels that are possible are:

1. Accredited Free?2. Modified Accredited Advanced 3.
Modified Accredited?4. Accredited
Preparatory?5. Non-Accredited

This is done through
statistical analysis. What can be said about this is the ways in which disease
emerges and that the designation of a tuberculosis free zone isn’t tuberculosis
free. If one isn’t doing adequate testing, then it will miss the mark, which
places the economy, the people of Michigan in jeopardy. These issues are
incredible important as we look for more state control.

Law
and Technology

In 2013, the Michigan
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) quarantined a feedlot,
belonging to an Arenac County Feedlot owner Daniel Koelsch, after an animal was
tuberculosis positive. Although cattle were found with tuberculosis, the
Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development allowed Koelsch to
slaughter and sell the remaining 141 test-negative cattle under the Michigan
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development supervision. (Fed News Service,
Including US State, 2014) Between July 2013 and November 2013, during the time
he was under bovine tuberculosis quarantine, he sold and bought cattle that
could have spread the disease. He paid $8, 806 in fines, 30 days in jail and
will

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be on probation for two
years. (Fed News Service, Including US State, 2014) These are steep penalties.
Are these men getting the proper train and fully understand the implications of
tuberculosis and the harm it may cause? Is there room to have adequate
training?

During the same time,
two farmers were fined $22,000 for moving cattle without RFID tags and failure
to keep adequately records a dealing in livestock without a license (See
appendix). In February, these farms bought cattle from a farmer in Saginaw and
his dairy herd was diagnosed with tuberculosis. During the investigation, it
was revealed that the cattle was old without RFID tags (Michigan Farm Bureau,
2013). The tags, which has come with criticism, is to make situations like this
easier as smooth process of identifying the potentially infected cattle. In
this case, instead of asking two or three days, it took over four months to
identify the farm and the person the calves were sold to and the locating the
calves within the heard. It also exhausted already depleting funds as the
people behind the investigation as well as the testing and of entire herds.
Once of the farmers moved more than 50 cattle without RFID tags. He was fined
and his license revoked for the rest of 2013 and for two additional years. The
other livestock dealer paid a fine. In an ongoing response to the first
outbreak, Michigan was the first state to in the U.S. to implement the bovine
specific radio frequency identification (RFID)-based animal tracking system
(Kirk and Buskirk, 2006) (see appendix). This adoption has been effort to
track, trace, cattle in the event of a tuberculosis outbreak and to eventually
control and eradicate mycobacterium bovis (Kirk
and Buskirk, 2006).?(Michigan Farm Bureau,
2013).

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Historical Antecedents + Current Debate
There are proposed
cuts to the USDA could be disastrous. The money that is being routed to other
causes will ultimately hurt the progress that has been made in regards to TB
elimination. As Michigan is already has counties that are MAAZ, the lack of
funds will only exacerbate an

already critical
issue. It is unfortunate that this is not on the local news and newspaper.
This is information that should be disseminated because of the implication of
TB infection as well as the farmer who are attempting to skirt the law. Image
if finds are cut and farmer’s livelihood is further compromised? There is
possibility that people will do whatever is necessary to feed their

family and pay their
mortgage – even if it means selling or buy a B infected cattle.

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Education
Conclusion and Policy
Education is the only
way we can get the message across to the public. I recommend that there
should be a policy in place that all schools and public news would have to
report cases of bovine tb.
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an
infectious disease that kills close to two million people a year. While it is
a preventable and treatable disease, there is little funding (internationally
and domestically) allotted to this disease. This paper will give a historical
framing to this disease as well as some of the major policy developments over
the past 50 years. This paper will focus primary on recent legislative
attempts to increase funding of LTBI as well as some proposed evidence based
practices and modeling.
Today in the United
States, mycobacterium tuberculosis claims
the lives of about 500 people each year and over 10,000 who have been
successfully treated. These numbers do not include the 13 million Americans
who are infected with latent tuberculosis, which means that were exposed at
some point in their life and could convert to active tuberculosis at any
time. This example connects the animal and human to the disease. This paper
will explore the tensions

between law and
humans and the resistance.

Flat funding (which is
better than reduced funding) that has been allocated to tuberculosis treatment.
We need to move away from a treatment model and incorporate a prevention model.
A two-prong approach (prevention: addressing and treating latent tuberculosis,
increase research and implement/create new international symbol; create/design
new (less toxic) medication, introduce a new treatment: continue treat active
tuberculosis is necessary to eliminate tuberculosis in the United States.
Tuberculosis is an old disease. It has been suggested that the disease could
have emerges out of East Africa around 1.7 million years ago. There is both
archeological and DNA evidence that substantiate Egyptian drawings that depict
people afflicted with Pott’s disease (Daniel, 2006; Cave 1939; Morse, 1964;
Morse, 1967; Zimmerman, 1979). Similarly, America (Andes Region) was inundated
the Andres Region well before the European

invasion. In Europe in
the early 19th and
20th centuries,
the disease was romanticized in order to quell fears and stigma. Tuberculosis
to date has taken the lives of over one billion people despite

the invent of
antibiotics in the mid 20th century. 1.8 million people die every year and more than half
of the world’s population have latent TB (13 million in the US).

 

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