Reading the two areas will form. PetersReading the two areas will form. Peters

Reading for pleasure is in a
serious decline nowadays because of new technology. The decline in reading did
not start just because of new technology but it has been declining since the
radio, television and now smart phones’ addition in our day to day life. (Loan,
2009) As said by Cimmiyotti (2013), schools depend a lot on text in order to
transfer information to the student. However, text books are challenging and
long with words that are above the students’ capacity to understand. Schools
give youth information in text to study at home and expect them to come back to
test the knowledge acquired. The youth, according to Irving (1980), believe
there was no relationship between reading and enjoyment. He saw that if a
partial or whole relationship between independent reading and pleasure was made
in later secondary school students, then a lasting relationship between the two
areas will form. Peters (2010) describes reading as a “multisensory” experience
as the smell, the feel of the pages, and the weight of the book that is held,
all add to the experience or journey of reading.



2.3 Literature review:

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Many areas attribute to children’s
positive growth in school, vocabulary and other aspects of life. Voluntary
reading or reading for pleasure is one of the areas that helps greatly. Richardson
and Eccles (2007) argue that voluntary reading help school a child’s identity,
validate gender roles and help identify a person’s cultural or ethnical
identity amongst other matters. In their research, they used qualitative
interviews alongside six waves of longitudinal survey data to reach their
findings. The results showed that voluntary reading helped greatly in the
interviewees educational aspirations which resulted in them doing better
academically. Reading was also seen to serve as a distressing tool when
educational responsibilities and the pressure to do good in school was causing
stress. Given the fact that the researchers reviewed the interviewees’ lives
since adolescence, they claim that reading is beneficial from a young age in
order to obtain better results in the future.


to Owusu-Acheaw (2014), the study conducted established the connection between
reading habits and academic performance. The study was conducted on Koforidua
Polytechnic students in Ghana. One thousand students answered the qualitative
questionnaire given regarding the research topic, which was analyzed by the SPSS
Statistical Package of Social Science. The study showed that most students
agreed on the notion that reading is important in a sense. However, from the
percentage that agreed on the importance of reading, most had not read any
novels or nonfiction in the past two semesters and 62.0% read just to pass
study related exams. The percentage of 75.0% chose that they only read for the
purpose of passing exams and studies related to university. More than half the
respondents of the questionnaire agreed that good reading practices do
influence academic performance as a response to a question asked about that
matter. The research suggested that academics should perhaps stop giving away
handouts and instead, to send the students to the library in order for them to
conduct their own researches regarding the courses given. Therefore, the
researcher suggested a new way of teaching which could help students do better
in their academia.


research was conducted by five researchers in Afe Babalola University in
Nigeria that had similar results to the previous research discussed. The
researchers used questionnaires to support the findings to investigate the
effects of reading habits on the academic performance of students. Students
were found not to give time to reading in their day to day lives. Majority of
the students that the survey was performed on only read for the purpose of
fulfilling their examination results. The findings discovered in the research
carried out by Owusu-Acheaw (2014), supported the last point discussed in this
research, that most students read only to meet their academic examination’s
results. Along with examination, in this research, students read for the
development of their psyche and to learn the English language in its written
and spoken form. Students were seen to mostly read their own notes and
university related textbooks. In addition to that, the findings showed that
other elements such social media websites are what discourage students from
taking reading as a means of enjoyment or to read in general. The findings in
this research through the questionnaires mark clear that there is a connection
between reading habits and academic performance and it’s a significant link
between the two. It is recommended that institutions should motivate the
students to read in creative ways in order to broaden the students’ knowledge.  (Daniel, Esoname, Chima, Udoako, 2017)


A research conducted by Akabuike
and Asika (2012) investigating reading habits of undergraduate students and
their academic performance brought upon results similar to the last two
researches discussed. The research was conducted using 200 randomly chosen
students from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka and Anambra State University. The
methods used to reach findings were interviews, a simple test, questionnaires and
some observations which were made during the time the students were given to
test the undergraduates’ reading comprehension. Certain reading habits were
recorded during the interviews such as personal reading habits, the frequency
of reading and much more. The interviews and the observations showed that
students mostly read in order to excel in their examinations and rarely read
for enjoyment purposes. Students with bad reading habits recorded poorly in the
tests given during the interviews. The study appears to settle that good
reading comprehension is needed to reach a decent level of academic success in
any studies. They recommended that the students should be motivated and
encouraged in different ways by their lecturers. Also, more material should be
made available to students in order for them to engage in reading.


In a research by Mol and Jolles
(2014), conducted on secondary students in a Dutch school. It focused on school
performance regarding leisure reading but with a focus on certain aspects. The
research concentrated on leisure reading regarding personal enjoyment, mental
imagery and gender. Most subjects were said to enjoy mental imagery which may
be seen in comic books rather than the usual method of reading. Girls were seen
to read more than boy. It was shown that boys who did not read had the poorest
academic performance. Also, non-leisure readers whom enjoyed reading received
better academic performance than others. In their study, they came to the plausible
conclusion that students with better reading abilities did get higher grades
but they could not conclude that ones that did not enjoy reading for pleasure are
the ones with lower grades. The aspects chosen to limit this research paper
were seen to be a tool for students to have a better reading culture or sense
if employed in beneficial reading programs. Just like researchers Akabuike and
Asika (2012), encouragement of students to read deemed important in the light
of their findings.


Another study conducted by Cimmiyotti
(2013) revolved around reading ability and its effects on academic performance
on primary level students. It focused on the correlation between academic
performances’ effect on reading and mathematics. Ninety-five primary school
students from different grades were used in this research. They were given
assessments that tested their reading performance in different areas related to
reading which were their fluency, comprehension and vocabulary. It was found
that there was a significant correlation between reading and students’
mathematics performance. The relationship between the two grew as students
advanced past second grade. The study did not find the direction of how the
correlation regarding readings’ effect on mathematics performance were set. However,
it did recommend that schools should go under the assumption that reading gives
the students skills to perform in better ways in the area of mathematics. In a
similar research, done in Turkey with the use of PISA Programme for International Student
Assessment to assess students’ performance in science and mathematics in
relation to reading comprehension, similar results were found. The researchers
used qualitative and quantitative methods to test students’ achievements in
schools across the world. The findings showed that there were factors to why
students that read received better grades. Family and relatives that supported
their children and encouraged them to read were seen to make their children
receive better grades. The results from the methods used presented that there
was correlation between reading comprehension and students’ accomplishments in
mathematics and science. The researchers recommended adults to encourage the
young generations to read more because of the strong connection between school
performance and reading. (Akba?l?, ?ahin, Yaykiran, 2016)


In another research done by
Parlette and Howard (2010), the positive influence of reading on personal and
academic performance was apparent in the results of their findings. The test
was done on eighteen to twenty-year old first year university students. A
discussion based method was used in this research. Focus groups were made to
reach significant findings and analysis of the discussions. Four out of the
five groups were seen to believe that pleasure reading is an important device
to the betterment of their personal and academic lives. A number of students
said that pleasure reading helps in improving their vocabulary and their
personal intellect. The results showed that the students believed that reading
serves as an important tool in leaving a positive impact on academic
performance and personal lives. This research recommends libraries and
universities to involve students in reading activities. Also, that book clubs,
reading programs and attaining the right material to students will be of great
help to making them read.


A study was lead by Menaka
and Jebaraj (2017) about the connection between reading comprehension and
academic performance in rural students of five government and private schools
in Coimbatore district, India. The researchers used a survey based method on
the students that were picked randomly. The higher secondary school students
were tested on to test three possible hypothesis. The first hypothesis was
rejected because of the insignificance of the 0.5 value regarding differences
in gender in relation to the connection between reading comprehension and
academic performance in English as a medium. The second hypothesis served the
same results as the first. However, the test was on Tamil and English as a medium
instead of just English. The last hypothesis was also rejected since the
results showed that there was a significant relationship between reading
comprehension and academic performance. The researched focused on statistics in
a specific matter.


Another research which was
focused on statistics, was prepared by Clark and Douglas (2011), gave an
extensive research regarding young people’s reading and writing with the focus
of leisure, attitudes and behavior concerning reading. Many key factors were
taken from the the 17,089 students from 112 schools that participated in the
surveys given to test out the factors. Like the previous research, girls were
seen to read more than boys outside of class. Also, girls held the higher
percentage of agreeing that links between reading and success in life and
studies exist. However, both genders agreed that links between the two do exist
in a significant manner. Students reading frequency differed with age, ethnic
background, gender and other properties. Girls preferred to read fiction, plays
and poems, when boys leaned towards comic books, newspapers and manuals. These
were some of the statistics given out of the widespread questionnaires handed
out in big numbers across England.