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Hello.  My name is Nicolette.  In this film, we’ll take a look at the different parts a reference consists of  and some of the different citation styles or systems of referencing that we can use.  Another word for reference is source reference or bibliographic citation.  A reference helps your readers to accurately identify the origin source  you’ve used in your text.  And the way in which we refer has evolved over hundreds of years.  A long time ago, for example, an incorrect reference could result in a monk writing  for several weeks, finally arriving at the goal of his journey, only to  find out that the place of publication written in the reference was wrong.  Of course this was long before mobile phones and the Internet, but  an inadequate reference can still have disastrous consequences even nowadays.  Take the example of Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, Germany’s former Minister of  Defense, who in 2011, lost his Doctor’s degree and all his political  commitments due to the facts that he had copied major parts of his doctoral thesis.  Subsequently he became know as Google-berg.  For your reference to be correct and  understandable, several parts need to be included.  Obviously the title of the work you’re referencing  needs to be there as well as the author.  And if we look at books for example,  we notice these can come in different editions.  Sometimes revisions, adaptations or  changes have taken place between these different editions.  This is why you need to include the year of publication and edition number  of your reference, so your reader knows exactly which source you’ve used.  The same goes for a book’s publisher and  place of publication, because these factors can affect the way a book looks.  Imagine someone has another edition of the same book.  The page numbering might be different and  that will make your source even harder to find.  So, how do you refer to different sources?  When your source is a book, you need to include the title, as we saw earlier,  the author, the year of publication, the publisher, and the place of publication.  But if the work you used is a chapter in an anthology with different parts  written by different authors, you need to give the title of the anthology,  as well as the title of the chapter that you used.  The same goes for the authors and the editors,  who are the people putting together the different chapters in the book.  The names of both authors and editors need to be in your reference.  Now let’s take a look at articles in scientific journals.  We see several similarities with the contributions in an anthology.  You need to include the title of the article, its authors and  the year the article was published.  But your reader also needs to know the journal  in which the article was published, the volume and the issue number.  These numbers make it easier to discern where exactly the article can be found,  because a journal can publish several issues per year, and  it may have published one volume per year since the 1800s for example.  Also, you need to give the page numbers of the article you’ve used.  And, if you took the article from the Internet,  you often need to include the web address and the date you accessed the article.  Web addresses are not always constant.  Because of this, and because of the fact that articles may be locked into  a database that needs a log in, something called DOI was created.  It means digital object identifier, and is an article’s unique code on the web.  Now, this code is stable, it does not change over time.  There are many different sources you might need to refer to  when writing your academic text.  Besides the forms we’ve already looked at, they may for example also include  newspapers, or blogs, or reports from authorities or conferences.  There are rules for how you need to refer to these different types of material.  Exactly what these differences will look like  depends on what reference system you use.  This leads us to the question, why are there different reference systems?  Well, as we saw in the beginning of this film in different context we have been  referring to sources since a long time ago.  Several established ways to write references has emerged  with different outputs.  The references look different in these systems due to the fact that these  reference systems were developed at different universities or  to meet different needs.  The main difference between different ways of referencing  is whether you use parentheses in the text you write or footnotes.  The most well known parenthetical reference systems are Harvard and  APA, developed at Harvard University and  the American Psychological Association, respectively.  In your text you put the authors name and  the year of publication in parentheses when referencing your source.  Your reader then knows that there’s a description of this particular reference  in your reference list,  which is a list with all the sources that we used, usually in the end of a text.  The Harvard System was developed mainly by biologists,  but it has later on become big within humanities and social sciences.  APA was originally developed by a psychologist but  is also widely used within social, behavioral, and health sciences.  Now, the Oxford and Vancouver systems are based on notes.  This means that a reference in the text is given as an elevated number or  a number in parenthesis or brackets, but  is explained on the bottom of the page or in the end of the chapter or text.  The Oxford reference system was developed by Horace Hart who worked for  Oxford University Press in the late 1800s.  This is probably why most printers and publishers choose this system.  Vancouver, on the other hand, was developed by the International Committee  of Medical Journal Editors at their first meeting in Vancouver.  Nowadays, the Vancouver reference system is mostly used in medical sciences.  Which of these reference systems you need to use when writing your academic text  depends on what discipline you write in, and  the context in which your text will be read also plays an important role.  Some universities and  supervisors prefer one system, whereas journals may prefer another one.  Therefore, you should always check what applies to you  before you start writing your references.  But regardless of what system you use,  the different parts making up the references are always the same.  And they are there to help you redefine the source that you used.  Good luck with your academic writing.  MUSIC

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