Sex of sexuality.” This essay will examine

Sex
education should be implemented in school in Indonesia

The number of sexual
abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cases,
including HIV and AIDS among children increase every year in Indonesia.
Regarding this issue, appropriate information about sex is needed as a
guideline for children so they have a positive attitude towards sexuality.
Providing sex education in school is one of the best solutions to tackle this
issue. Schools are an important place for education on health-related issues,
for enhancing health outcomes and giving chances for referrals to health
services (UNESCO, 2014). However, many people believe that this sensitive issue
should be taught at home by parents and teaching students about sex can encourage
them to have sexual activity. Whereas, sex education has a broader meaning than
what the majority of people in Indonesia understand. As cited from UNESCO
(2009),

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“Sexuality
Education is defined as an age-appropriate, culturally relevant approach to teaching
about sex and relationships by providing scientifically accurate, realistic,
non-judgmental information which provides opportunities to explore one’s own
values and attitudes and to build decision-making, communication and risk
reduction skills about many aspects of sexuality.”

This
essay will examine the concerns about the constraints in implementing sex
education in Indonesia. It will then look at the role of schools as sex
educators and the benefits of providing sex education in schools, and argue
that sex education seems to be the only viable solution for handling this issue.

According to cultural
and religious viewpoints, in Indonesia talking about sex education is generally
viewed as taboo (UNESCO, 2009). Religious convictions impact the substance an
approach of sex education which can repress talk of sex, both inside schools
and in more extensive social settings. In addition, based on Muslims perspective,
the philosophy and substance are seen as contravening Islamic Principals, where
the basis for sex education in schools in secular system of education is
absolutely physical with no spiritual and moral dimensions. (Ashraf as cited in
Mark, 1997). In addition, Ma’aruf Amin who is at present the Chief of Indonesian
Council of Ulama (MUI), states in 2013 that sexuality doesn’t should be
educated to children since they will find out about it all alone (Schonhardt,
2013). Likewise a female clergy believed that sex education should be
restricted to the family condition in light of the fact that the psyche of  teenagers who have no sexual information and
experience become compromised by answering to the question introduced by
adolescents who have just got sexual learning and experience (Robab et al., 2013). However, Utomo (2003) has
contended that cultural taboos restrain access to gain appropriate information
while youngsters are presented to uncensored and frequently wrong sexual
materials in the media. These conditions influence guardians’ and teachers’
esteems towards sexuality education. Furthermore, UNESCO (2009) clarifies that sex
education is not really something that can be separated from culture and
religions. Parents and schools can have a direction and guidance from religious
organizations and different specialists when the subject is actualized. In
support to this Erlinda, one of the magistrates with the Indonesian Child Protection
Commission (KPAI), points out that educational curriculum in schools could put
a scope of components over the course of sex education, along with values in
religion and cultural morals and norms that are appropriate in the public. (Yosephine,
2016).

A
further argument against sex education in school is appropriate resources.
Cullen, 2016 contend that parents are in charge of educating their kids about
sex education and morality. Parents and guardian are an imperative and
essential source of guidance for youngsters concerning sexual conduct and
values. Numerous adolescents believe that their parents as an important source
of sexuality information (Frappier, Kaufman, Baltzer, et al., 2008). Moreover, there
is no place like home where family can extensively discuss sexual issues that
can be a vehicle for molding positive, insisting mentalities around sexuality (Mary,
2016). Furthermore, over the past two decades, researchers perceiving the
effect of the family on a youngster’s creating sexuality and future conduct,
have tackled the issue of sexuality education by parents. In addition,
empirical evidence shows that teenagers whose parents discussed
straightforwardly with them about sexuality when they were young report feeling
substantially more open to talking about sexual subjects with their parents and
will probably settle on individual choices about sexual conduct that reflect
parental esteems and moral (Brock, 1993). However, contradicting this opinion,
some factors may hamper when parents want to discuss sexual subjects with their
children. Parents and young people agree that parents frequently do not have enough
information to educate their kids about sex (Fox cited in Baldwin, 1990).
Moreover, many parents report feeling awkward talking about sex or
relationships with their kids. (UNESCO, 2009). Furthermore, Baldwin (1985)
observed that guardians just concentrate on biological subjects (e.g.,
menstruation, female reproductive system) rather than sexual decision-making
points ( e.g., contraception, peer pressure about sex) when discussing with
their youngsters about sex. In Indonesia, as Erlinda, one of the commissioners
with the Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI) accentuates, parents do
not have enough abilities and information to educate their kids appropriately
about sex education, in this manner, the government should take an action as
facilitator to ensure the subject is all well delivered to children (Yosephine,
2016).

The role of schools in
providing sex education is very important. Schools are the main formal
education institution to have significant and mandatory contact with each student,
they are one of a kind position to give kids, teenagers and young adults with
the learning, comprehension, abilities and attitudes they should settle on and
follow up on choices that promote sexual health throughout their lives (Public
Health Agency of Canada, 2008). Furthermore, schools give pragmatic methods for
achieving vast quantities of students from differing background in ways that
are replicable and sustainable (Gordon, 2008). Moreover, teachers liable to be
a skilled and trusted source of information, and long-term programming
opportunities through formal educational module. School authorities have the
ability to manage numerous parts of the learning environment to make it
protective and supportive, and schools can also act as social help centers,
trusted institutions that can interface youngsters, parents, families and
communities with different services (UNICEF, 2009).

Another concern often raised in relation to
implementing sex education in Indonesia is it may lead to early sex (UNESCO,
2009). Some evidence shows that discussing sex may increment sexual conduct in
adolescents. Some additionally contend that exhibiting sex education in public
areas will encourage them to engage in sexual relations. (Robab et al., 2013).
However, some studies demonstrate that giving sex education can postponed the
start of sex, diminish the recurrence of sex and also diminish the quantity of
sexual partners (UNICEF, 2009). In addition, Gordon, 2007 states that some
studies also estimated constructive effects on individual esteems, peer norms,
communication about sex and condoms and diminished use of alcohol. Some experts also states that many benefits of providing
sex education at schools. Sexuality education offers protection against
unintended pregnancy and prevents sexually transmitted infections (STIs),
including HIV and AIDS. These are the key health results on which numerous
projects are focused. If educated properly, educational programs based
sexuality education can also help youngsters to develop communication skills,
and in addition improving their confidence and capacity in making decisions. It
can also help them to build positive and equitable connections. For instance, Finland started providing sexual education
as a compulsory subject in 1970. As a result, the proportion of adolescents who
had had intercourse by the age of 14 and 15 decreased, as well as the
adolescent abortion and delivery rates also decreased (UNESCO, 2009). In
addition, there is growing awareness about
the significance of sexuality education as far as increasing gender equality
and lessening gender-based violence, and its basic role in contributing to
childrens’ improvement and evolving capacities (Rogow
and Haberland, 2005). Furthermore, some studies shows that providing sex
education can increase children academic performance (Breunur, 2016).

Sex education should be implemented in school in
terms of protecting children and adolescents. There are numerous sexually
abused children who did not become exposed or the consideration of government
authority on what have been cruelly done to them. The wrongly placed shame, the
blame and the fear of being faulted on have shied them far from confessions to
guardians or authority figures. This is mainly in light of the fact that the
victims’ incomprehension of ‘sexual abuse’ and their rights to reject such
treatment. Sex education has just become crucial in these previous couple of
years yet child sexual abuse has existed all through mankind’s history.
Subsequently, executing sex education into schools can diminish the rate of
youngster sexual abuse and accordingly giving a solution to kids and
adolescents (Carroll, 2010). The World Health Organization
(WHO) defines child sexual abuse as:

“The involvement of a
child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend is unable to
give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally
prepared, or else that violate the laws or social taboos of society. Children
can be sexually abused by adults or other children who are –by virtue of their
age or stage of development – in a position of responsibility, trust, or power
over the victim (World Health Organization,
2006: p.10).” Furthermore, a
2004 WHO review of research evaluated the worldwide prevalence of youth sexual
victimization to be around 27% among young ladies and around 14% among young
men. More specifically, that survey found that the average prevalence among
females was around 7– 8% in South and Central America and the Caribbean, and
additionally from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Another
research conducted by ECPAT,(jelasin ECPAT itu apa) 2016 the number of sexual
abuse cases increases every year. For instance, in 2011, out of a total
of 2,176 cases reported to the Commission for the Protection of Indonesian
Children, 329 were sexual abuse cases, for example, molestations,
rapes and commercial sexual exploitation. In 2014, of the aggregate of
5,066 reported cases, 1,217 were sexual abuse cases. This shows the quantity of
cases reported to the Commission for the Protection of Indonesian Children went
up to 2.5 times within four years. Based on this
phenomenon, it can be inferred that keeping in mind the end goal to
diminish the rate of child sexual abuse, the implementation of sex education in
schools is practical as youngsters and adolescents would find out about child
abusers and sex abuse and they could reject such offenses upon them. Kids and
adolescents would be more mindful of the present circumstance in this advanced
society and they would know the actions to be made if necessary. Not just that,
the victimized would have the capacity to comprehend that they are not the only
one and numerous will assist their situation (Carroll, 2010).

Taking everything into consideration, the
implementation of sex education in Indonesia face some constraints which impact
on how school as a sex education provider deliver it as a subject. However, as
discussed previously, providing sex education in school is crucial in
protecting and helping young people to have ideal attitudes towards sex. If
government postpones the children to gain this knowledge, it means that the
government deliberately jeopardizes children’s life as our next generation. All
stakeholders such as government, society, parents should support the provision
of sex education at schools as the most reliable and secure sources of sex
information and skills as well as supervising its implementation over
time. 

 

 

 

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