Soil solution for erosion cause by windSoil solution for erosion cause by wind

Soil erosion is a tremendous issue to the environment. Erosion can impact: landscape, water ways, and support structures. For farming the top layer of soil gets ripped away, which means the layer with all the nutrients is gone to help the crops grow. Soil erosions can also cause natural mudslides and landslides. Water ways get polluted with the eroded soil which can contain anything from nutrients to pesticides. With soil being pushed away and moved around the base of a building for example will to be secure causing buildings to collapse in on themselves. Although soil erosion is an expanding problem there are way to reduce and prevent it. Crops and cover crops are major solution for erosion cause by wind and water. Water control also contributes majorly by making runoff pipes and chutes to direct the water away from farming land. In my project we will be testing two different ways of stopping soil erosion. There will be 3 containers with equal amounts of soil, one with mulch, one with plants, and one with just the soil. Equal amounts of water will be poured into each container and as the water filters through each container I will record the color. The clear the water the less “erosion” of the soil occurred. If plants are placed in the soil then less soil erosion will occur.  I chose marigolds to act as the crops while the mulch represents cover crops. My experiment will only be simulating water erosion. I choose to do marigolds because of their type of root system, which is fibrous. Having that type of root system means “consisting of a dense mass of slender, adventitious roots that arise from the stem…The roots grow downward and outward from the stem, branching repeatedly to form a mass of fine roots.”(SOURCE 5). For mulch I chose to go with grade a cypress much because it is known to help prevent t erosion. It helps prevent erosion by ” It will lay like a thick intertwined carpet that will not wash away… It is more expensive than all other mulches but because of its natural characteristics it will last a lot longer. After all, it is made from the part of the tree that was intended to protect the tree from the elements.” (SOURCE 6).                    To start the project, you will need to take 3 two-liter bottles and cut along one side of the bottles a 24x6cm opening. Then fill all of the bottles with 60oz of soil. After you are going to add 3 marigold seedlings to one of the bottles then add  24 oz of mulch just to make a layer on top of the soil to the last bottle. Next you are going to need 3 more two-liter bottles and cut then horizontally in half. You just need the part of the bottle that does not have the neck. To continue you will need to cut 3 pieces of string 21 cm long and hang it along the necks of the 3 bottles with the soil. To connect the 2 bottles piece, you will need to make to incisions on the half bottle opposite each other and tie the ends of the string through each hole you have made. After you have the experiment set up you will need to pour 3 cups of water into each bottle with soil slowly. The water will then drain through each environment mimicked and pour out in to the half-cut water bottles. Lastly you will observe the color of water in each half on a scale of one to ten, one being clear (purified water) and 10 being the most murky.Graph                                           Data Table Marigolds Mulch Soil (Control)Trial 1 3 5 9Trail 2 4 6 9Trail 3 2 4 9                                         During my project, I discovered right way that having the marigolds in the soil help tremendously compared to having nothing, just the soil. During my research I learned why marigolds would have such a positive effect with the soil. It is all due to their root systems, since they have many dense roots compacted together it helps keep the soil in place. On to the mulch, it preformed much better than anticipated since it was not as dense or compact as the marigolds. The soil, control group, performed exactly as expected because it is lose allowing the water to easily move it where ever to likes. After all, three trials the marigolds has the best turn out being the most successful “solution” to soil erosion while the mulch followed in 2nd. In trial one the marigolds performed 6 levels higher than the control while the mulch performed levels higher than the control but 2 levels less than the marigolds. The results of trial 2, the marigolds did not perform as well as the first time as performing only 5 levels to the control while the mulch followed the same path as the marigolds, performing one level down as trial one. The last trial had the best results, with marigolds at the lowest level of the whole experiment at a 2 and the mulch at its lowest, a 4. The control stayed the same at entire experiment, level 9, so comparing the results were always with that level. The graph also compared the results by trial instead of individual. I chose to have my graph presented that way to compare the subject directly with the control. Trail 2 may have performed the way it did because of how the project was set up so next time I would prepare all the trails at one time instead of reusing the same 3 bottles but it could also have happened natural since the change was not too drastic. Also, I would perform more test in case one trial does not go as planned, to back up results in case of a mishap and for more accurate data. Another thing I would change would be the measurements of the water. I could have come up with more accurate results if my research went a little farther. Next time I would also like to add more types of plants to see the different outcome or instead of water erosion I could try wind. Since water erosion is a natural process it is hard to apply a principle to it but I found that there is one. The Precautionary Principle (PP) is to ensure that an activity or thing that could be a potential threat to the environment is prevented from effecting the environment and that relates to soil erosion and my project because the water used to make my data would be runoff water the real environment. As shown in my project and through research, the water is filthy and contaminated with things like pesticides and since tends to be runoff water it will contaminate the uncontaminated water making it dangerous to consume or use.Works Cited1. C=AU; o=The State of Queensland; ou=Department of Environment and Heritage Protection; ou=Corporate Communications. (2013, October 25). Impacts of erosion | Environment, land and water. Retrieved January 06, 2018, from https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil/erosion/impacts 2. University, C. (2006, March 23). Soil Erosion Threatens Environment And Human Health, Study Reports. Retrieved January 06, 2018, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060322141021.htm 3. Soil Erosion. (2017, April). Retrieved January 06, 2018, from http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-ii/environment-and-environmental-problems/soil-erosion.php 4. Causes, Effects, and Solutions of Soil Erosion. (2016, December 24). Retrieved January 07, 2018, from https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-of-soil-erosion.php5. Bareja, B. G. (2011, April). Plant Root Types: Fibrous Root vs.Taproot System. Retrieved January 07, 2018, from http://www.cropsreview.com/fibrous-root.html 6. http://mariposanursery.com/garden-center/mulch/