is a term in psychology and biology borrowed from physics and engineering and
first used in the biological context in 1930s. According to Rahim (2010) stress
is considered to be one of the main themes in the research for last two decades
and a significant growth observe in researchers’ interest as a concern to both
employers and employees.
(2000) has explained that stress is usually thought of negative terms and it is
thought to be caused by something bad which harmfully influences the human
lives, including workers. Further, Fernando (2007) emphasized that the effect
of stress is a deviation from the existing physical and psychological condition
of human life. Also he stated that stress is an important factor in organizational
behaviour, in part due to the increase in competitive pressures that take a charge
on workers and manager equally. In
addition, Dua (1994) identified that work-related
stress is of growing concern because it has noteworthy economic implications
for the organizations through employee dissatisfaction, lowered productivity,
lowered emotional and physical health of the employees.
According to Razak et
al. (2014) work stress is become as a general issue that always occurs in every
organizations and the employees cannot be run without facing occupational
stress in their work. Further, Manshor,
Fontaine and Choy (2003) emphasized that there is an increasing concern about
job stress in developing countries. Hence, Occupational
stress is one of the major health hazards of the modern workplace.
to the literature it was observed that scholars have defined occupational
stress based on different aspects. “Occupational stress is
defined as the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when job
requirements do not match with the worker’s capabilities, resources and needs”.
(National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health 1999).
Furthermore, Weerasinghe and Batagoda (2001) indicated
that job stress is considered as the harmful physical and emotional reaction
that occurs when there is a poor match between job demand with capabilities,
resources and need of employees. Similarly, Lazarus and Folkman as cited by Kinman (2001) discussed
that in general work-related stress is considered to be the product of an
imbalance between environmental demands and individual capabilities.
Additionally, Rao and Borkar (2012) identified work related stress is the response people may
have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their
knowledge and abilities. Further, Stanton et al. as cited by Bell, Rajendran
and Theiler (2012) defined job stress as something in the work environment that
is perceived as threatening or demanding, or is something in the work place
which gives an individual a discomfort experience. Accordingly, Stanton et al. identified two job stress such
as job threat stress and job pressure stress where job threat stress is
described by individuals as qualities of work experience which persuade
feelings of being overwhelmed or nerve-wracked and job pressure stress is the
perception of work being demanding or time-pressured. According to Topper as
cited by Beheshtifar Nazarian
(2013) occupational stress is also defined as the perception of a
inconsistency between demand comes from environment (stressors) and individual
capacities to accomplish those demands. In addition, Wickramasinghe as cited by
Razak et al. (2014) explained
that job stress is normally identified as an adverse reaction of people on
excess pressure or demands placed on them at work.
to Francis and Barling as cited by Beheshtifar Nazarian (2013) there is a distinguish
between three closely related terms of stressors, stress and strain.
are defined as the outer events such as difficult relationships in the
workplace or a heavy workload that contribute to the experience of stress.
Stress is considered to be an individual’s internal reaction to stressors and
is characterized by stimulation and displeasure. And according to Kumar and
Pragadeeswaran as cited by Beheshtifar &
Nazarian (2013) the strain is
expresses as the long-term effect of stress and comprises psychological
outcomes such as anxiety and depression. In addition, Beheshtifar and Nazarian (2013) identified stressors as
objective events, stress as subjective experience of the event and strain as
the poor reaction to stress.