The 61 degrees Fahrenheit or 16 degreesThe 61 degrees Fahrenheit or 16 degrees

            The average temperature on Earth is usually 61 degrees Fahrenheit
or 16 degrees Celsius. Global warming has been described as a complex,
scientific “term” to portray a gradual increase in the average temperature of
the Earth’s atmosphere which also includes its oceans. The gradual increase of
temperature appears to be caused by the increased levels of gases such as
carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and many other pollutants mostly
contributed by human emissions causing severe damages into atmosphere. Many
people including scientist believe that Global Warming is leading to the
permanent change of the Earth’s climate and possibly projected to continue on forever.
However, when scientists use the term, Global warming, they often are concerned
about human activities or human emissions that are causing the issue of climate
change. Many people of course do not understand the real science including the
cause and effect of this phenomenon. As a result of the creation of gases which
trap energy mostly through human activity, this is causing a gradual rise in
the atmospheric temperatures (global warming). (Miller, Roxanne Greitz. “Inside Global

to our textbook, (Chemistry in Context- Applying
Chemistry to Society- Chap 3), Global warming seems to be a result of the
greenhouse affect due to its gradual temperature increase, worldwide. The
greenhouse effect is described as, “the process by which the Earth keeps a
constant temperature by having an atmosphere containing water and carbon
dioxide.” (Chapter 3 & 4) Heat radiation is able to go through the
atmosphere by gases (carbon dioxide and methane for example) however it also
prevents radiation “reflected off the surface of the earth from exiting the
atmosphere.” In sum, this is how the heat is kept enclosed. Human activity such
as burning fossil fuels (amongst other human emissions) causes a great increase
in the carbon dioxide concentration in our atmosphere which is boosting the
greenhouse effect because global temperatures are becoming extremely high.

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There has been strong evidential proof that human
emissions is causing our Earth to increase in temperature a bit faster than
usual which will result in an unpleasant effect on weather, plant life, ocean
level, wildlife/aquatic-marine animal life, and life on Earth overall due to
Global warming. According to, (SCHNEIDER, STEPHEN
H. et al. Global Warming.; Issues in Science and Technology), burning
fossil fuels are one of the biggest causes in global warming and when fossil fuels
are burned, they tend to give off gases one of which, CO2 because fossil fuels
are made up or organic matter; for example coal or oil. In addition, when
fossil fuels are dug up from the ground, methane is being released also but
methane is naturally in the ground, hence, mining coal as well as oil allows
the methane to escape into atmosphere which is a pollutant. Now, as human
beings, we need food to eat for energy. Our Earth is populated with billions of
people, hence, the more babies that are being born, for example, more food is
needed to feed human beings. With more food, comes more breeding/raising of
animals and agriculture which mean there would be more fossil fuels burning
(methane is released into the atmosphere). We use cows, for example for milk
and beef (meat). When animals like cows release manure which is considered to
be “an organic matter” or feces it also consist of methane. Green manure
however is used as organic fertilizer in our agriculture. (SCHNEIDER, STEPHEN H., et al. “Global
Warming.” Issues in Science and Technology) With that being said,
we studied in chapters 1 through 4 in our textbook that transportation is
another big issue that contributes to global warming and pollution. The animals
that are being raised and the agriculture that is being grown to feed us has to
be delivered or transported so that we can buy the produce which means more
pollutants in our atmosphere such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other
pollutant gases due to motor vehicles. According to the union of concerned
scientists, “in 2013, transportation contributed more than half of the carbon
monoxide and nitrogen oxides, as well as almost a quarter of hydrocarbons
emitted into our air”.

Global warming is obviously
that is occurring in nature whether it is influenced by human emissions or not.
Our world is always changing. For some people, Global warming could be
considered as a pro rather than a con. For example, some people hate the cold
weathers and the cause of global warming could possibly introduce longer,
warmer weathers which can also result in possibly vanishing winter weather
overall. With warmer weather, more rainy weather and more CO2 in our air, there
might be a chance for an increasing in agricultural productivity. This means
that there could possibly be longer growing seasons for plant life. Forests are
being killed, for example, so that people can use wood for their chimneys/fire
places to heat up their homes or used for stove furnaces. If the temperature because
warmer, there would be less deforestation because there wouldn’t be as much of
a need to use wood to heat up their homes. (Bryson,
Reid A. “GLOBAL WARMING?” Energy & Environment)
On the other hand, since CO2 is considered to be one of the biggest sources in
the process of photosynthesis as well as the majority of life on Earth since
plants are known to be the primary producers in our ecosystem. Therefore, if
there isn’t enough CO2 or carbon dioxide, this can possibly lead to major
depletion of life on Earth. As we studied in our textbook (Chemistry
in context: applying chemistry to society), we know that Sunlight is very much
valued because the sun light (energy) shines on our Earth, some of that heat is
absorbed which is then used to heat our ocean water and the heat that is
“trapped” by CO2 is used to warm our atmosphere overall. This is how carbon
dioxide gas might be viewed as a pro instead of a con when it pertains to its

there are many pros and cons (more cons than pros in my opinion) to Global
Warming, there are several steps that we can take in efforts to reduce its
impact. As I mentioned in this essay, many human being use motor vehicles as
transportation which consumes a lot of gas/fuel and also gives off a lot of
carbon dioxide into our atmosphere. It would be feasible for our environment it
we used a bicycle during warmer weathers, take public transportation such as
trains, or if cars are a must then carpooling should be considered as an option
as well. This would help reduce the amount of pollutants in our atmosphere. I
learned from Con Edison, that although our televisions, for example, may be
turned off; it still uses energy if it is plugged into the socket. So when we
are not using electronic devices , we should ensure that it is not plugged into
the wall socket or possibly considered strip outlets when electronic can be on
“standby” but we can switch the power switch to “off” so that energy is not
being used uselessly. The brand of light bulbs that we use in our household is
considered a big deal believe it or not. For example, if we are using
incandescent bulbs we should definitely replace them with energy efficient
compact fluorescent light bulbs (although they cost just a bit more but it is a
well worth investment) which are very easy to find at our local home depot
store or hardware store. For coffee lovers like me, we can visit organic coffee
cafes or purchase our coffees at whole foods and places that carry/sell
“shade-grown” coffee as opposed to “sun-grown” coffee. Sun-grown coffee is
known to “be produced in areas of devastated rainforest while shade-grown
coffee help preserve the rain forest.” This would help reduce the need for
pesticides which would benefit of our planet. I also love to travel, so for
travelers like me, we can spend a little more time researching resorts or
hotels that are considered “green” where they save on energy as well as water
in efforts to reduce the use of solid waste. Again, I love meat; I am a meat
eater but as I mentioned we use cows for beef and cows release manure (feces)
which methane is a huge source of. We can therefore reduce our intake of meat
as well as dairy and eat more vegetables. When we go grocery shopping even, we
can bring in reusable bags instead of plastic bags which are bad for the
environment. We can recycle and reuse things in our household such as clothes,
electronics, glass/plastic bottles, and etc to eliminate pollutants into our

is considered to be an “ice continent” located in the northern peninsula of our
Earth, however, recent studies has shown evidence of climate change in one of
the most coldest parts of our planet (Antarctica). Researches in Antarctica
have discovered, “rapidly growing banks of mosses” on Antarctica’s icy
peninsula. Although people may believe how icy Antarctica is, most parts of it
are now showing greenery and appear to be getting even greener as time
progresses. In fact, “the surface mosses build up a thin layer in the summer, and
then freeze over in the winter. As the layers builds on top of layer, older
mosses subside below the frozen ground where they are well preserved due to the
temperatures.” (Mooney, Chris. “Energy and Environment.”) This is of course a
bit strange since Antarctica is known for its continent to be covered in ice
surrounded by ocean and therefore uninhabited. There also seems to be more ice
in the ocean around Antarctica because ice glaciers are breaking off as well as
the ice shelves on the continent. Researchers say that the Arctic’s temperature
has risen at “almost twice the rate as temperatures in the rest of the world over
the past few decades”. As a result of the sea ice depleting or melting, the Arctic
could possibly take up carbon dioxide due to the increase of tree life which will
then mean more absorption of sunlight which will then cause the land to appear less
reflective and darker. According to NASA’s Goddard institute of Space Studies, “much
of Antarctica has cooled during the past 30 years which resulted from ozone depletion
and other factors.” As a result the surface waters surrounding Antarctica have now
warmed became less saline and also has increased in precipitation. The loss of ice
shelves, due to global warming, has impacted the sea level and global climate. The
increased precipitation will cause the Antarctic ice sheet to thicken as a result. (Hasemyer, David, et al. “Climate & Energy
News, Investigations.” )
















Works Cited Page

1.      SCHNEIDER, STEPHEN H., et al. “Global
Warming.” Issues in Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, 1989,
pp. 23–25.  Pierce, Richard J. “ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND GLOBAL WARMING.” Environmental
Law, vol. 37, no. 3, 2007, pp. 595–602. .

2.      BEST, GERRY. “Global Warming.” Environmental
Pollution Studies, 1st ed., Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1999,
pp. 96–103. 

3.      Miller, Roxanne Greitz. “Inside Global
Warming.” Science Scope, vol. 30, no. 2, 2006, pp. 56–60. 

4.      Middlecamp,
Catherine. Chemistry in context: applying chemistry to society. 8th ed.,
McGraw-Hill Education, 2015. ISBN number is 978-0-07-352297-5

5.      Bryson, Reid A. “GLOBAL WARMING?” Energy
& Environment, vol. 16, no. 2, 2005, pp. 333–334. 

6.      Mooney,
Chris. “Energy and Environment.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 18 May

7.      Hasemyer, David, et al. “Climate & Energy News,
Investigations.” InsideClimate News,