The accuracy, and surface finish of theThe accuracy, and surface finish of the

The cutting temperature is vital, particularly when
its high, it effects both the tool and the work being output. A large section
of heat is taken away by the chips. This is not a major concern as the chips
are not used. The possible effects of high cutting temperatures are that the
tool will be likely to wear out much faster. 
There will be some sort of flaking and on the cutting edge because of
the thermal shocks. The elevated temperatures will also cause build up
formation. The cutting tool during the procedure of machining is a great concern
since cutting metals are related with elevated temperatures in the cutting zone.
Having a high temperature of the
cutting tool causes hardness change, metallurgical transformation, or even
chemical composition change due to work done in deforming and in overcoming sliding
friction between tool, workpiece, and chip. Henceforth, they have reflective
consequences on the tool life, dimensional and form accuracy, and surface finish
of the product. The cutting temperature on the tool is particularly crucial since
a lot of heat is being produced. The rise of the heat temperature and cooling
of the tool at work are linked with considerable temperature differences in
cutting edges. Moreover, the heat generated during chip formation does not flow
effortlessly through the workpiece and chip.

Tool materials

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materials play a huge role in material cutting and tool wear. The progression
of high speed steels to carbide and moving further onto ceramics and other
durable material. From the 1960’s the
development of the use of coatings, particularly titanium nitride, allows
high-speed steel tools to cut faster and last longer. titanium nitride provides
a high surface hardness, resists corrosion, and it minimizes friction.
In the industries, carbide tools have substituted high-speed steels in most
applications. These tools cut around 3/5 times quicker than high-speed steels.
A great percentage of cobalt binder increases the tool strength, on the other
hand it lowers the wear resistance. Carbide
is used in solid round tools or in the form of replaceable inserts. Many
manufacturers of carbide tools create a variety for certain applications. The correct
choice of the tool can increase the life or improve the cutting speed of the
same tool. The tools that are Shockproof those types are used for interrupted
cutting. The stronger tools are chemically-stable types which are essential for
high speed finishing a material like steel. The heat-resistant tools are required
for machining the alloys, like Inconel and Hastelloy.






When the material reaches its maximum the followings
occurs, if the work material is brittle, a crack will appear in from of the cutting
edge, later it results in fracture. If the work material is ductile, a visible
crack will not be observed because of healing. The tool materials must be firmer
than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to resist the
heat produced in the metal-cutting process. Moreover, the tool must have a precise
geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can co-operate
with the workpiece without the rest of the tool holding on the workpiece
surface. The workpiece is a piece of pre-shaped material that is secured to the
fixture, which itself is attached to a platform inside the milling machine. The
cutter is a cutting tool with sharp teeth that is also secured in the milling
machine and rotates at high speeds. By feeding the workpiece into the rotating
cutter, material is cut away from this workpiece in the form of small chips to
create the desired shape.


Contact stresses


The contact stresses involve physical processes on the
surfaces and the contact of the cutting tool when the chip has been removed so
it can be investigated.  The contact
layers depend on the length of elastic, parts of this layer are on the normal
and shear stresses contact zone. A natural white layer is produced in the cutting
process which plays a protective role and results in the reduction rate of tool
wear. As the metal is cutting, a force acts through a small section of the rake
face, which Is in contact with the chip and is further known as the tool chip
interface. The contact of the tool chip interface the correct procedures should
be analysed such as, the contact pressures between the stresses (normal/shear),
the temperature distribution between the tool and the material, and finally the
parameters of relative motion. Experimental techniques have been done to
understand the stresses which include split tool, dynamometer and photo elastic
tools. The transparent tool is used to gain a direct observation of the tool chip
interface. The stress starts increases when the cutting speed rises. The mean contact stress is found to be a function
and a characteristic of the state of stress in the contact zone. Moreover, the
shear contact stress determines to a significant extent temperature at the tool
chip contact, it can be stated that this temperature is solely a function of the
cutting speed and the work material.




When the cutting conditions are correct the work can
be done swiftly. Various decisions must be made regarding the cutting tool and
the cutting conditions. These include surface finish, geometry, speed of the
machine, the depth of the cut and the cutting fluid that needs to be applied
for the correct material.  The cutting
tool wear must be monitored to prevent the tool from breakage also a rough
finish to the workpiece. The cutting-edge angle affects the
cutting process by, giving a feed and cutting depth, it defines the uncut thickness,
width of cut, and the tool life. As the width increase, on the other hand the
active part of the cutting-edge increases. This results in improved heat
removal from the tool and hence tool life increases. For example, if the tool
life of a high-speed steel (HSS) face milling tool having or = 60° is taken to
be 100% then when or = 30° its tool life is 190%, and when or = 10° its tool
life is 650%.




The cutting fluids in the machining process and used
for several reasons which have a significant impact on the tool. The fluids
help by improving the tool life by cooling down the temperature, the fluid also
reduces the thermal deformation on the work piece, it also helps by giving a
smooth finish and flushes away the excess chip from the cutting zone. The
fluids also help as applies a corrosion protection over the machined surface.

There are
generally three types of liquids used during cutting procedures: These are mineral, semi-synthetic, and
synthetic. Semi-synthetic and synthetic cutting fluids represent attempts to
combine the best properties of oil with the best properties of water by
suspending emulsified oil in a water base. These properties for the
fluids are rust prevention, tolerance between an extensive range of water
hardness, work with various metals, restrict thermal breakdown, and are environmentally

Despite cooling, the cutting fluids also help the
cutting process by lubricating the interface between the tools cutting edge and
the chip. This procedure prevents friction at this interface, some of the heat
produced is prevented. This also helps to prevent the excess chips from being
welded onto the tool or the work piece.



Cutting tool shapes

Below the there is an explanation of the various tools
used for cutting:


facing tool is used as the first operation on the machines. The metal is cut
from the end to make it fit in the correct angle of the axis to remove marks
and blemishes.


tool is used to cut the metal into a cone shape with the aid of compound slide.

Parallel Turning

parallel turning tool is used to cut the metal parallel to the axis. This procedure
is done to decrease the diameter of the metal


procedure is used slowly and carefully to perform the operation, this is due to
getting a perfect outcome and avoid any damage to the tool or work piece. To
make a deeper curt with this tool, it is removed out and transferred to the side,
so it can cut and to avoid the tool from breaking.

tools come in various shapes and sizes, all of them have different angles and geometries.
Each of the tool has its own operation and are used for a specific purpose in
metal cutting. The main machining goal is to attain the most effective separation
of chips from the work piece. To gain the correct outcome, the cutting tool geometry
is vital also these following aspects are needed to be taken in account:

Workpiece material

Cutting tool material

Power and speed

Cutting conditions such as heat & vibration