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The is No Vaccine for Salmonellosis. The infections
usually resolved in three to 7 days on their own without medication but
drinking lots of fluids is imperative. IV fluids are given for severe
dehydration are important and antibiotics may be taken if infection is severe
or detected in the blood stream but not recommended for mild cases. Anti-diarrheals
such as loperamide may be given for severe diarrhea but are not recommended
since it can prolong the infection. To prevent salmonellosis an individual will
need to consistently be washing hands with soap for 20 seconds before and after
handling foods, especially raw meats and between nonfood related tasks (Daily, 2016). Avoid possible cross
contamination of food by keeping raw meals separate from produce, cooked foods
and ready to eat foods. Must cook poultry at 165 degrees Fahrenheit ground beef
155 degrees Fahrenheit and eggs at 145 degrees Fahrenheit thoroughly. Also must
avoid cross contamination of food Raw or undercooked meat or eggs and raw or
unpasteurized dairy products should not be consumed If possible have two
cutting boards in your kitchen- one for raw meat and the other for fruits and
vegetables. Individuals must never place cooked food on an unwashed plate that
previously held raw meat. And Washing hands after changing diapers, using the
restroom, and handling pets (Daily,

CDC estimates that Salmonella causes
approximately 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths every year in the United States.
Those who are most affected by Salmonella infection are infants, the elderly,
and people with compromised immune systems. Some of the main conditions caused
by Salmonella are gastroenteritis, enteric fever, and bacteremia, while the
general symptoms of salmonella include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and
abdominal pain. While there are typically few to no long-term effects because
of a Salmonella infection, more serious complications may arise. Salmonella can
infect other foods including vegetables and fruit for example in 2015 a
multi-state outbreak of salmonella on cucumbers was announced by the CDC. A
total of 907 persons in 40 states were infected; Six deaths were reported.
According to the CDC, as of May 25, 2017, 372 people have been infected with
the outbreak strains of Salmonella. They have been reported from 47 states. The
signs and symptoms nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), vomiting,
fever, infected person will experience symptoms within 8-72 hours after consuming
the contaminated food, illness typically last: 4-7 days, effective dose: 8-20
cells. And if the infection spreads to the bloodstream and distant organs, the
illness increases in duration and severity and will usually include signs and
symptoms related to the organ affected. Salmonella can be detected by stool
sample but if the doctor suspects the bacteria has traveled to your blood
stream a blood sample may be requested.

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pathogenesis of salmonella is transmission between animals to humans. It is
acquired by ingestion of food items infected with a high concertation of the
bacteria. The bacteria are ingested and if they survive the stomach acid, they
begin to infect the epithelial cells found in the small intestine where they
being to grow and multiply. Once in the intestines, the bacteria invade the
cells lining the intestine. The initial presence of bacteria ruffles the host
cell’s membrane creating an efficient route to obtain necessary macromolecules.
After ingestion, these bacteria cause
infections by invading the epithelial cells of the small intestine and
macrophages. Pass through intestinal epithelial cell, infect the regional
lymphatic system, invade the bloodstreams, and infect other parts of the
reticuloendothelial system. Organisms are phagocytosed by macrophages and
monocyte, but survive, multiply and are transported to the liver spleen and
bone marrow where they continue to replicate the second week the back-reenter
bloodstreams. Third week bacteria colonize gallbladder, re-infects intestinal
track and cause diarrheal symptoms

Center of Disease and Control states that salmonellosis is one of the most
common foodborne infections in the United States, resulting in $365 million in
direct medical costs annually Statistics. Salmonella includes over 2,300
serotypes (species) of gram negative flagellated rod shaped. It has a slow
growth has been observed at 41 degrees Fahrenheit and with a maximum growth
between 113 degrees Fahrenheit and 116 degrees Fahrenheit. Among the many
different stereotypes of salmonella, serotypes typhimurium and enteritidis are
the most known and account for half of all human intestinal infections.
S.typhimurium is commonly found in food of an animal origin including milk,
eggs, beef, and poultry. And according to the CDC S.Typhimurium is most
epidemic in third world countries rather than in the U.S. S.Enteritidis is
mainly associated with poultry and eggs and is the most common species of
salmonella with outbreaks in the United States according to the Center of
Disease and Control. The bacteria are ingested and if they survive the stomach
acid, they begin to infect the epithelial cells found in the small intestine
where they being to grow and multiply.  

Salmonellosis is a type of food poisoning that
is caused by Salmonella enterica bacterium. Salmonellosis is gram-negative
bacillus that causes inflammation of the Gastrointestinal tract and in some
cases, if the immune response is not sufficiently powerful and treatment is not
administered, can become systemic and cause even more serious conditions
throughout the body. Salmonellosis is spread through fecal-oral route which can
be transmitted by food and water. Also by direct animal contact although rare
and from person to person. Salmonella thrives and grows in the intestinal tract
of humans and other animals including poultry and other birds, amphibians, and
reptiles. Within animals, reptiles are especially more likely to carry
salmonella since it can contaminate and live on their skin. Raw chickens and
raw eggs consumption is one of the most common form of salmonella infection in
foods. Salmonellosis has been known to cause illness in people for over 125
years. According to the CDC it is the second most common bacterial infection
that affects the intestines. Discovered in the 1800s by the American Scientist
and veterinary pathologist named Dr. Daniel E Salmon. The salmonella bacteria were
first discovered while studying hogs that die to hog cholera or swine fever and
in a strain isolated from pigs intestine in 1885.