The female reproductive system are the OvariesThe female reproductive system are the Ovaries

The female reproductive system has the job of producing gametes, to receive the male gametes, to provide a suitable environment for fertilisation and the development of the fetus.The four primary functions of the female reproductive system are the ovaries as they produce female gametes and the hormones oestrogen and progesterone. The Uterus provides a safe home for the developing baby and transfers food. The mammary glands have the role of providing food for the baby.The inside organs of the female reproductive system are the Ovaries which secrete the ova and sex hormones. The Fallopian Tubes which are a pair of oviducts that connect the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. The womb which is an organ in the pelvis. The uterus consists of 3 parts: The fundus which are the Glands that are part of the fallopian tubes.The body which is the main part of the uterus. The cervix which is the part that projects down into the vagina. The Vagina is a muscular but elastic tube from the cervix to the outside of the woman’s body.The external organs of the female reproductive system are the Vulva which has The Labia Majora that are two thick folds of skin and fat on which coarse hair grows at the start of puberty. As well as The Mammary Glands which are glands present in both sexes, but only developed in the female. The breasts grow at puberty and are affected by the ovarian hormones. The function of the male reproductive system is to perform tasks which include maintaining, producing, and transporting sperm and protective fluid. The system also deposits sperm within the female reproductive tract during intercourse. Additionally, it creates and secretes male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system.The parts of the male reproductive system are the following organs: The deferent and ejaculatory duct, The penis, The seminal vesicle, The testes and lastly The prostate gland.Gametogenesis in females is Oogenesis whereas in males it’s Spermatogenesis. The production of sperm begins in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. The germinal epithelium surrounds These tubules. This lining contains a high concentration of primordial germ cells (PGCs). The Multiplication Phase-once a male sexually matures the PGC’s start to divide through Mitosis to produce Spermatogonia, which is one of 2 different versions. Type-A Spermatogonia is when the stem cells divide to form more Spermatogonia. the precursor to new sperm cells is Type-B Spermatogonia The Growth Phase-The Type-B spermatogonia start to grow. They do so by taking nutrients from the Sertoli cells also located in the germinal epithelium. Once they have developed, they become Larger Primary Spermatocyte. The Maturation Phase in this the larger primary spermatocyte undergoes two divisions. Reductional is the first maturation division, as each primary spermatocyte splits into two haploid daughter cells named secondary spermatocytes. During Spermiogenesis each of these four spermatids then transforms into Spermatozoa which is a healthy functioning sperm. Fully functioning female gametes, are produced by Oogenesis that take place in the ovaries. Multiplication Phase-Each female ovary includes the germinal epithelium. The more massive cells of the germinal epithelium divide by mitosis to produce millions of oogonia. These oogonia then multiply by mitotic division forming primary oocytes. The growth phase of a primary oocyte takes a long time. The oogonia each grow into larger primary oocytes which get surrounded by a layer of granulose cells to form a primary follicle. In the Maturation Phase, each primary oocyte goes through 2 maturation splits. In females, the 1st and 2nd divisions, are named meiotic divisions. In the 1st-Meiotic Maturity Division, the primary oocyte splits to produce two different haploid daughter cells. One is a large secondary oocyte; the other is a first polar-body. During the 2nd-Meiotic Maturity Division, two secondary polar-bodies are formed by the division of the Small first polar-body. Sizeable secondary oocyteis when division happens once more to produce different daughter cells; one is a large ootid and the second is a secondary polar-body. The ootid transforms into a functioning haploid ovum.During fertilisation, the ovum and sperm need to meet within outer one-third of the fallopian tube. Once a sperm is in an ovum cell the membrane thickens to prevent entry of any more sperm. The 23-chromosomes from the sperm nucleus fuse together with the 23-chromosomes of the ovum nucleus to gain the diploid number of 46-chromosomes this produces a zygote.On the first-day, the zygote begins to divide, as it travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus. On the second-day, mitosis continues and a 4-cell embryo forms. On the third-day, a mass of about 16-cells (morula) is formed. The morula enters the uterus and fluid from the uterine cavity enters the morula. On the fifth-day, the cells continue to divide and rearrange themselves in a structure, known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst begins to implant in the thickened endometrium. Around ten-days after fertilisation, the blastocyst is implanted as within the endometrium. This process is called implantation.Pregnancy lasts for about 38 weeks. On week four Embryo is 4mm long and has a beating heart. Week five the embryo has grown to 12mm with arms and legs. Week eight the embryo is now about 46mm and has a human figure. On week nine it is possible to tell the gender of the baby. During these first weeks of its development that tissues forms and organs develop. After 12 weeks the foetus is 92 mm and has all its internal organs. Two weeks later its kidneys start working. Week 16 first kicking movements. Week 20 the foetus is entirely-formed. It is now about 185mm and 700g. Week 26 the foetus has grown to about 250mm. Week 35 the foetus takes on 40g of fat a day. On week 38 the baby is 360mm, and it’s 3400g ready to be born.The organ attached to the lining of the uterus is called the placenta.It keeps the foetus blood supply separate from the mother’s blood supply, as well as providing a link between the two. The connection allows the placenta to do tasks the baby can’t do. The foetus is linked to the placenta through the umbilical cord. The blood transports nutrients and oxygen to the placenta where the umbilical cord carries them to the foetus. Waste from the foetus, like carbon dioxide, pass back along the umbilical cord to the placenta and then into the mother’s bloodstream, to be disposed. Hormones that help the foetus develop and grow are produced by the placenta. Protection against infection for the embryo, while it’s in the womb, is also provided by the placenta. (NHS 2015) The placenta produces human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), which leads to the ovaries to carry on secreting oestrogen and progesterone. These are importanr for the continuation of pregnancy because they help to maintain the lining of the uterus wall. The placenta also controls the production of oestrogen and progesterone.Dilation is a stage of labour. This step has two phases: initial and active. the cervix dilate and efface until it merges with the rest of the uterus as a result of contractions. These adjustments are neccessary to let the baby to go into the vagina. (msdmanuals 2017)Initial Phase is at the beginning of labour, where the cervix starts to soften so that it can open. Contractions are irregular and weak at first but become progressively stronger and more-rhythmic.During The Active Phase, the contractions get stronger as the cervix opening expands to about 10 cm. Cervix streches by getting thinner and effaces to the rest of the uterus.The head, begins to descend into the woman’s pelvis. It is at this point that the fluid and amnion is released. Delivery this stage is from the time of the maximal dilation of the cervix until baby exits through the vagina. At this stage, the woman pushes. Forceful contractions of the uterus wall force the baby through the cervix and vagina. Afterbirth stage is between the delivery of the baby to delivery of the placenta through the vagina.