The four forces. Many Greek philosophers didn’tThe four forces. Many Greek philosophers didn’t

The four fundamental forces in universe are the
gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the strong and weak nuclear
forces. The discovery of these forces explained natural occurrences and reasons
of movement in the world. They each have unique characteristics in their role
and function in the universe.

            Gravitational
force is the weakest out of the four forces. Many Greek philosophers didn’t
realize there was such thing as gravity and believed that the planets movements
were a part of their god’s realm. This idea remained until the 16th century,
when Sir Isaac Newton is said to have first discovered gravity when he
witnessed an apple falling while thinking about the forces of nature. Even though
we don’t for certain if this is how he really discovered gravity, he did figure
out that there is something acting on objects falling otherwise they wouldn’t
move while not in motion. He also realized that without some type of force the
moon would fly away from Earth if something wasn’t keeping it from falling
towards it. Newton named this force gravity and stated that this force occurs
between all objects. Albert Einstein introduced a new idea about gravity that
contradicted Newton’s theory. Einstein said that gravity appears because of the
bending of space and time. For example, Einstein’s theory explained things like
light bends when passing by near objects that are big. Things like this went
against Newton’s theory.

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            In
addition, gravity has many important characteristics. Although it is the
weakest out of all the four forces it is probably the most important. For
instance, it holds together solar systems and galaxies. It is the force that
occurs between two objects no matter the size. The common law of universal
gravitation discovered by Newton states that a particle attracts every other
particle in the universe by a force that is corresponding in amount to the
product of their masses and corresponding to the reciprocal of the independent
variable to the square of the distance between their centers. Although gravity
is the most dominant out of the four forces, electromagnetic force is still
responsible for many things.

            Likewise,
electromagnetic force is responsible for all the things we see, excluding
gravity. It is the second strongest out of the four forces. Magnetism and
electricity were thought to be completely unrelated, until by accident, a
scientist named Christian Oersted discovered differently. He was presenting a
diagram to prove the contrary on what he found. A student grabbed the wire and
held it up to the compass that Oersted was using during his demonstration and
to their surprise the needle in the compass swung towards the wire. Oersted was
curious and moved the wire away and observed the needle going back to where it
was. Thus, discovering that electricity does indeed create a magnetic effect.
He learned more when he placed a compass around a wire and found that the
needle moved in a counter close direction when placed at different spots around
the compass.

            After
Oersted, a scientist named Michael Faraday discovered that just how electricity
creates a magnetic field, a changing magnetic field creates an electric field.
James Maxwell, following Faraday introduced the first theory that included
related magnetism, electricity, and light. These all display the foundation
force of electromagnetism. Because of Maxwell’s theory, the production of
electromagnetic waves by fluctuating electric currents in wires was explained.
Thanks to Maxwell, Albert Einstein was able to put together is well known
theory of special relativity. These scientists all helped expand and put
together the force of electromagnetism. Molecules made from the bonding of
atoms, light, and life are all a result of electromagnetism. Electromagnetism
is stronger than the weak nuclear force, nonetheless it is still important in
holding particles together and responsible for thinks like beta decay.

            Similarly,
the weak nuclear force is the second weakest out of the four forces however, it
is still much stronger than gravity. It keeps the particles that make up the
protons and neutrons together and it also allows radioactive elements to become
stable elements. It is also responsible for beta decay. Beta decay was first
discovered in 1899 by Ernest Rutherford. He knew the process involved atoms
releasing particles and later the knowledge of his discovery was expanded.
Another physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel found that the particles were
electrons. By 1933, Enrico Fermi, another physicist formed a theory to explain
beta decay, the process where a neutron within the nucleus becomes a proton and
ejects an electron. He defined this new weak nuclear force that changed a
neutron to a proton, electron, and neutrino. This force plays a greater role in
things falling apart or decaying. However, it does have a very short range,
about .1 percent of the diameter of a proton.

            Today,
the weak force is part of a theory in particle physics called the Standard
Model. This theory describes the foundational structure of matter using
effective equations. According to this theory, particles that cannot be split
up into smaller molecules are the essential aspects of the universe. One of
these smaller molecules is called quark. Scientists haven’t found anything
smaller then it but are continuing to look and do research. The final force out
of the four in the universe is on the contrary to the weak nuclear force
because it is known as the strong nuclear force.

            Additionally,
the strong nuclear force is the strongest out of all the fundamental forces. It
is always attractive and just like the weak nuclear force it very small
however, it is only within the nucleus instead of just protons and neutrons
like the weak force. In 1932, a physicist named James Chadwick found that there
are atoms called neutrons within the nucleus of every atom. It was previously
assumed that what holds the nucleus together is the electromagnetic force.
However, following Chadwick’s discovery, another physicist, Eugene Wigner
offered the idea that the electromagnetic force is not involved with the
nucleus being held together, rather there are two different forces. Now known
as the strong and weak nuclear forces.

Similarly, the strong nuclear force
is the force that gives the pull between protons and neutrons. Thus, holding
together the nucleus. The strong force was first introduced to explain why
atomic nuclei didn’t fly off, but it was later found that it also is the reason
for the binding of quarks. Its force between quarks in a proton can almost be
100 times that of the electromagnetic force. In the 1970s, physicists formed a
theory for the strong force that is like quantum electrodynamics. This theory
stated quarks are held together in protons and neutrons because of the
exchanging of gluons. Like electric charge, a property called colour is carried
by quarks. In the same way that electrically charged particles feel the
electromagnetic force so do colour charged particles feel the strong force.

In conclusion, the four fundamental forces
in the universe play different roles in the forming of many objects and
explains many complicated things. For example, the reason for the circulation
of the planets is due to gravity, a wire attracting a compass is due to
electromagnetism, and how the nucleus of atoms stays together is because of the
strong and weak nuclear forces. Without these forces there wouldn’t be a
universe, instead it would be dysfunctional, and nothing be anything held in
place. Therefore, these forces are the building blocks of the not only the
world but the entire universe.