The from confirming our insistence that “happinessThe from confirming our insistence that “happiness

The
age-old question that happiness is found within or through meaningful relationships was once
again presented by Ginny Graves and Ruth Whippman in their articles
respectively. Both authors provided their views through arguments and evidence;
either stating their belief or poking holes in the opposition. Ultimately,
Graves presented a more persuasive case than Whippman in terms of how the
arguments were formed and citing multiple sources to provide credibility to her
evidence.

 

To
convince an audience, arguments formed have to be in a fair manner and
presented in an appropriate tone, a formal tone in this instance. In Graves’
article, there are instances where pathos is used to appeal to the readers
emotions. Talking about “a cold drink of water, the purr of your cat, the
fluffly clouds overhead” (Graves, 2017, P6), stirring the reader’s emotion in
order to persuade them on her stand. This works well as the ideas were
presented in a formal way, allowing the reader to form an opinion on their own.

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Following alongside, Whippman did likewise which can be seen from, “happiness
app … that would send you photomontages of sunsets and puppies” (Whippman,
2017, P1). However, her point was diluted when she tried to induce humor by
commenting on “your actual, less attractive loved ones” (Whippman, 2017, P1).

This creates an informal tone, which does not bolster her appeal on the stand. Jokes
can be used to deliver an idea, but in this case that comment might came across
as hurtful to some. A trait clearly seen in Graves’ article was providing
different sources to help build upon her argument. She uses established authors
like Martha Beck, Susan David and Chade-Meng Tan (Graves, 2017) to provide
reliable information which help enforce her points. Whippman instead, prefers
shooting down her opponent. Stating, “if we want to be happy, we should really
be aiming to spend less time alone”
(Whippman, 2017 P14) and “Because far from confirming our insistence that
“happiness comes from within,” a wide body of research tells us almost the
exact opposite.” (Whippman, 2017, P11). This is a common tactic used in
debating, when one runs out of ideas, they begin to start finding loopholes in
the opposition’s theories (Limbaugh, 2017). Not stating that Whippman has ran
out of ideas but she could have come up with better sources to elaborate her stand.

 

A key
feature found in a persuasive argument is the credibility of the sources
presented. Graves provided multiple sources when giving evidence to her claims.

Examples are, “explains Robert Lustig, MD, author of the forthcoming book The Hacking of the American Mind: The
Science Behind the Corporate Takeover of Our Bodies and Brains.” (Graves,
2017, P4), and “a study at Michigan State University found that” (Graves, 2017,
P8), and lastly “says Susan David, PhD, author of Emotional Agility: Get
Unstuck, Embrace Change, and Thrive in Work and Life” (Graves, 2017, P2). The
sources quoted by Graves were credible sources, many of which experts in their
respective fields. Having credible sources help ensure readers that the
information they are receiving can be relied on. In other words, making Graves
more accountable than opposed to Whippman. On the contrary, Whippman failed to
cite her sources when giving evidence. Whippman mention, “People who study
these things have observed” (Whippman, 2017, P6), “Study after study shows”
(Whippman, 2017, P13), and “according to research” (Whippman, 2017, P14). The
lack of stating the origin of her sources, questions the credibility of her
claim. With skepticism looming about the credibility of her sources, the
audience would be unable to form an unbiased opinion. This leads to an unfair
argument based on Whippman’s missing sources. In an article on 6 Reasons Why Citation of Sources is
Important When Writing, Sankaran wrote that, “Citing specific sources for
the various facts that we present removes the hallmarks of intellectual
laziness, vague thinking, and sloppy writing as generalizations, clichés, and
outright false claims” (Sankaran, 2016, P8). Failure to cite would be subjected
to “outright false claims”, as stated by Sankaran, PhD, author at Falcon
Scientific Editing. Therefore, we see the importance of ensuring that evidence
used in an argument would have the appropriate sources cited to reinforce them.

 

In
conclusion, Graves was able to form better arguments through her use of
appropriate tone, appealing to emotion and building on her stand as opposed to
Whippman. Graves also presented credible sources when Whippman failed to do so.

Despite covering a variety of situations, Whippman was unable to persuade her
audience due to her lack of formality and unsupported claims. The art of
persuasion is a skill which many strive to attain. Having the right tone and
credible sources are just the tip of the iceberg in achieving the end goal,
persuasion.