The Furthermore, the World Health Organization suggestsThe Furthermore, the World Health Organization suggests

The good
example is New Zealand spend $340 million a year for treating diabetes and they
estimated it will rise to $1 billion in 2021.

Furthermore,
the World Health Organization suggests that several of global changes also
contributed to the obesity epidemic in the world. They are like increasing
urbanization, changing modes of transportation, shift from manual labor to
sedentary forms of work. Lot of cities encourage sedentary rather than manual
forms of transportation with the poor urban planning in many areas. Lot of foods,
we are eating daily consists with processed, energy dense and high in fats and
sugars. It also contributing to the excess consumption of calories.

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We’re
going slowly to death.

“We’re sitting
ourselves to death” newspaper article from The Dominion Post written by
journalist Tom Fitzsimons, July 2011.

That above
New Zealanders’ newspaper article shows several factors of how obesity causing
to our death. “You go back 100 years in New
Zealand,” says Schofield, “50 per cent of the workforce was involved
in primary agricultural production, and it was not mechanized. Now it’s 2 per
cent of our workforce and it’s all mechanized. The reality is that most of us
sit all day. I call it the new normal.”

Tom
Fitzsimons saying that the shift from the physical nature of our jobs is also
contribute to the obesity. He describes that how we spend our leisure time, how
we get to and from work (largely by car) also some big matters.

“Humans
are designed for an unstable outdoor environment in which we’re in more or less
constant motion,” But today, “We just created a world where you’re
scrunched up in a chair the whole day. I mean, it’s just bizarre.” says Schofield.

Why current structured forms of exercise are alone not
enough to meet populations’ exercise needs, and the recommendation to integrate
physical activities into everyday lifestyles.

According to
2007 Health Survey for England the main two barriers to exercise for people
living in England is work commitments and not enough leisure time.

But exercise
needs to be incorporated into peoples’ everyday lives?? Then how can we solve
these problems?

Ellinor
Olander is a PhD student. She did her PhD thesis about those obesity problems
in the world. She discovered that splitting exercise into small bouts made no
differences to the cardiovascular fitness gain. 
She says that total time spent active in a day is very effective matter.
This confirms if multiple small bouts of exercise can do it in everyday or
incorporated in everyday activities as single structured piece of exercise
(>10 minutes) is more effective. She suggests that such activities require
little motivation to initiate. She says that those exercises may be so simple
like Walking up a set of stairs which don’t want any preparation or commitment.
She says that’s is so effective than go to the gym or for a run. Those small
bouts of physical activities can be incorporated into everyday routines easily
and it is almost always free.

The
effect of stair usage on the human body

Kong Chuan Teh and Abdul Rashid Aziz researches shows
that it takes the mean person 0.11 kilocalories to climb up a step in a
staircase and 0.05 kilocalories to climb down a step (150mm riser height). So
one must climb up and down 93m of stairs daily to burn off the typical extra
100 kilocalories a day needed to reduce obesity.

According to their 10 year prospective study by S  Yu, JWG 
Yarnell, PM Sweetnam, and  L
Murray found that little as  7 minutes
total of stair climbing a day will reduce two thirds of chances of coronary
heart disease of middle aged man. According to their research, Per minute stair
climbing is an extremely efficient way for burning calories than jogging. 

Active
design

City of New York used ‘Active design’ term to describe
the designing of any part of the built environment which aims to increase the chances
for daily physical exercises and the living of healthy lifestyles within
cities. City of New York published the Active Design Guidelines in 2010 which
is written by seven New York city agencies in addition to the American
Institute of Architects. It is a 136-page document. It basically outlines
strategies based on research to meet these aims. The main aims to prevent
obesity and diabetes, tied the over-consumption of calories, under-expenditure
of human energy which are pressing issue across America and worldwide.