The Greece, buildings were made with a

The temple of Athena Nike is a temple built and used by ancient Greeks, in 420 BCE. It is the smallest temple on the Acropolis in Athens. It is 23 ft. high, 27 ft. long, and 18 ft. wide. “It is made of pentelic marble, from the quarries at Penteli north of Athens” (London). It is a fine-grained marble. This type of marble was used for most of the major monuments in Athens (London). The temple was built by hand by the Greek architect Kallikrates. It was built in ionic order, which is a classical form of architecture. “The Ionic order is defined by the Ionic column. In ancient Greece, buildings were made with a number of columns that held up their roofs” (Muscato). A column was made up of several parts. The base is the stone platform at the bottom of the column. There are usually multiple layers to the base. On top of the base is the shaft, the long part of the column with grooves running down the sides  (Muscato). At the very top is the capital, the decorative stone that holds the weight of the roof. Ionic columns are usually more slender, but the defining feature of the Ionic order is the volute of the column. A volute is the spiral, scroll-like capital of the column (Muscato). The temple has four monolithic columns on the east and west fronts. Monolithic column means that each shaft on the column was made with one single piece of stone. “The temple is sometimes called the pearl of the Acropolis, since it was designed and decorated with great care.” (Minollari).  It held a wingless statue of the Goddess Athena, that is no longer standing today. The temple was built to honor the goddess, Athena Nike. She was known as the guardian of Athens, and for protecting civilized life. The temple was used to worship Athena. People would frequently bring things as gifts to her and place them at the altar. They would then stand or kneel down and pray to her. It allowed people to pray and worship the goddess of victory (Minollari). “The Greek goddess Athena was frequently called upon to settle disputes between the gods or mortals” (Turnbull). She was known for her logic and intellect (Turnbull). They cared a lot about her, and the role that she played in the city. A statue was built of her, inside the temple. Even though Nike gods are normally portrayed with wings, her statue was wingless. It was built that way to represent that she would never abandon Athens (Temple). “It was not a place where regular people could enter. The believers would simply perform rituals in front of the temple, where a small altar was, and could look at the statue of the goddess through the space between the columns” (Minollari). They would normally have to sacrifice something to the god being worshiped. Animals sacrificed were usually pigs, sheep, goats or cows and always the same gender as the god which was being honored (Cartwright). Then the meat was either burnt completely or cooked, with part offered to the god and the rest eaten by some or all of the worshippers (Cartwright). The privilege of entering the temple was reserved for the priestesses, who held a respected position in Greek society (Minollari). People today can learn that the people who used this temple in ancient Greek history, looked up to Athena. They believed that she was a very important person, judging by the fact that they have built this whole temple to honor her and worship her. Since she was called upon to settle problems between people more than anyone else, she was very necessary to have around in society. Through their work, the Greeks showed people today that they cared a lot about their architecture. This temple was destroyed twice, and rebuilt over and over (Sakoulas). They also replace the floors every few years to prevent damage. They shows that they put a lot of hard work into these structures. People can also learn that the Greeks played a big part in how architecture developed. The types of ionic structures they used are still used today, thanks to the Greeks. Also, the monolithic columns are still used in famous buildings around the world. This shows that the Greek’s architecture has inspired architects and influenced the way things are built today.

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