The need of urban facility requirement forThe need of urban facility requirement for

The meaning of development according to
Oxford Dictionary is “An event constituting a new stage in a changing
situation.” In the same sense, development never occurs in the same pace in a
country or even in a particular region. Development of a country can be
achieved by achieving growth in economy and society. The Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) which is the measurement of the economy is also one of the parameters used
in the World Happiness Index report produced by UN. Hence, we can infer that
Development indirectly leads to Happiness.

The
post-World-War II Economic expansion happened after the World War II. It was
also known as the Golden age of Capitalism. Nearly the whole planet was
devastated after World War II. The OECD or the Organisation for Economic Development,
formed in 1961, had most of the central European and Western European countries
as their founding members along with USA and Germany. The organisation was used
to promote free trade among members and also non-members. The OECD members
during the fifties and sixties enjoyed a high rate of economic development (OECD). Due to large pool
of labour, and raw materials the economies of these nations were developing at
a never before rate. Meanwhile, a lot of under developed countries had gained
independence in the post-world war two era and were pushing for rapid
development to get out of the pathetic state the colonial masters had left the
countries in. This was also the time; people realized the need of urban
facility requirement for the development of the country and the need for social
infrastructure for the satisfaction of the general population (Krueger, September 27, 2016). The Golden age of
Capitalism ended with the energy crisis of the seventies. With the increase in
oil prices, the OECD, and other rapidly developing countries, went into recession.
Due to the New Industrial Countries having a low cost manufacturing sector, a
steel crisis ensured during this period, because of this the North American and
European Industrial sector had to re-structure.

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Michael Camdessus, the IMF Managing Director
used the phrase “Silent Revolution” for the time after the energy crisis of the
previous decade and the globalization that took place in the 1990’s. Lender of
IMF had to have an open market and export oriented policies, which meant most
of the world was moving towards an open market economy (http://www.imf.org/external) With
the improvement in Information Technology, most economies had to opened up to
globalization to gain access to new technology. It also meant new technologies
for health care and transport, tested education methods and efficient
infrastructure designs (HAMDI, 2015).

Infrastructure is a requirement for
development and it is very important for the society’s welfare. An article “India
in need of a structured infrastructure” published by Economic Times, said that
by increasing infrastructure one can create an environment which generates
social and economic activities as well as enhances quality of life. It also
helps the society to find various ways to deal with present and past problems.
Many economic and social reforms fail because of insufficient infrastructural
facilities like electricity, communication, transport etc. therefore, a proper
structured infrastructure is required. When structure and infrastructure are
dealt individually then they have different meaning but when the two words are
put together they are perfect.

The American Heritage dictionary (“Infrastructure
dictionary definition.” http://www.yourdictionary.com/infrastructure) defines infrastructure as: “The basic
facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a
community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water
and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and
prisons.” while the term structure has several meaning, it is often referred to
as something that is made up of several parts put together in a particular
system. It can also be interpreted by the way in which these components are
arranged together. Hence, a structured infrastructure means that trivial
services like water supply and power and various other public institution and
services should be arranged together in such a way that the society or
community functions properly and gets reformed in order to pave its way towards
growth. Everyone in the society is happy and satisfied in terms of needs and wants;
this is also why Urbanization is a reality staring in the face of the country.

Substantial progress has been made with respect
to planning and development of our cities since the time of independence. The
problems faced by other developing countries are similar to the problems challenging
our cities. Each and every country try their level best in order to the various
urban problems and also provide its citizens with proper amenities and utility
services. Each city has a distinct character which creates impact on all its
citizens and the life in the country. Therefore, Greater understanding of the
factors involved in this is called for.

Migrating from rural to urban areas in
pursuit of better facilities, jobs, opportunities and moving towards better
future and fortune is a common global phenomenon. According to McKinsey Global
Institute 2010 report, by the end of the year 2030, 590 million people will live
in the Indian cities which is almost twice the population of the United States
today (rediff, 2011). The Indian
government has accordingly understood the need for cities that can survive with
the intrinsic challenges of urban living and also be magnets for investment to
accelerate the growth of local economies. The idea behind “100 Smart cities” is
a part and parcel of this vision, because in this regard our country is trying
its level best in making effort to provide probable amenities and utility
services (Kumar, 2015). The life of the
country and its people is affected by the distinct character of each city.
Therefore, it is important to understand the various urban facilities and its
utilities and its role in creating a regional imbalance.

In India, a wide range of socio-economic
inequalities are observed even in Class-I cities. These inequalities are
inevitable and affect the quality of life, and standard of living. In the state
like West Bengal having developing economy, utility always plays a role of
dependant variable and facility always tries to meet its pace. Bardhhaman city
of West Bengal as per census of India 2001, has a total population
approximately close to 0.3 million and therefore has been recognized as one of
the Class-I cities in India. Bardhhaman city is of prime importance to the
state of west Bengal as it is the district headquarter for the state, and a lot
of people travel in and out of this city. Hence, knowing the distribution of
the urban facility-utility service in this district is very important with
respect to district’s population.

The history of Bardhhaman is traced to about
the ‘Late Stone Age’ or Mesolithic Age in the excavations of 1954 and 1957. The
excavations at ‘Pandu Rajar Dhibi’ revealed that the people lived in planned
towns with houses built of unfired clay and reinforced with reeds and having
plastered walls. They knew the use of copper and their principal occupation
were agriculture and trade. Also, Bardhhaman unit is one of the 570
district nodes of NIC (National Informatics Centre) in the country (http://bardhaman.nic.in/nic/nic.htm). The activities took place in full swing from
March 9, 1988 and since then has been playing a major role to deliver IT
support to Region’s administration since then. Bardhhaman district has always
remained at the pole position in endorsing digital governance in all important
Government departments of the district. With the use of ICT, district
administration has achieved a lot like better planning, efficient services,
transparency towards the citizens and much more (Official Website of Burdwan
District, West Bengal, India. Retrieved from
http://bardhaman.gov.in/aboutUs.html).  Hence, chalking out the inter-ward disparity and demarcate areas
that lack sufficiency in providing urban facilities becomes important.