The of Functionally Graded material (FGM) asThe of Functionally Graded material (FGM) as

The development of the skins of the building are
becoming ever more complex in Architecture and construction industries. Rapid
manufacturing utilised the application of different material as the skins of
the buildings. It is effected economically and environmentally in so many ways. Furthermore, topology optimization
systems was set up in such a way to help the solid object yielded in a
continuous modification of material stiffness for a better performance. In
result, the topology optimisation would contribute in cutting down the cost and
increase the production of environmental friendly materials. With the
assistance of Computational fluid dynamics technology, multi-materials
methods could be utilised to provide greater efficiency and higher standards
that exploit the particles systems in connection with one component of
structure and the building skins rather than having it separately. With the existing fluid and dynamics
simulation tool in the market, we were able to develop a gradated structure and
material properties to achieve an outcome and also as method of expanding the


Modelling FGM

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Manufacturing is growing quickly that increased the demand and market
potentials, technologies has impacted product development to explore  various types of design routes in order to
improve the building performance.  The
terminology of computational system helps to improve the performance based
products. There are various methods have been developed and modified to achieve
the best modelling and simulating mechanical behaviour of Functionally Graded
material (FGM) as the production of the mixture of materials affected by
technology systems. The collaboration of 3D CAD system it provides the product
developer with a very powerful tool to optimize its design alongside with the
creativity expansion, and also shortens the time needed for the a better
product development. With the existence of various new technologies in the
market such as concept modellers are able to produce prototypes with acceptable
tolerances in a short period of time.


The Terminology
of CAD technique

   Fluid simulation uses computational fluid dynamic
to generate realistic animation of fluid such as water and smoke as reality.
The motion of fluids described by the technique of numerical approximation of
the Navier-strokes equation. The understanding of Fluid simulation in relation to the building
designs, in particular the multi-material production is highly important in
producing the best Architecture product. Computer fluid dynamics (CFD) an
effective method involving the minimal cost that commonly used in Industrial
Design industry but still at the very beginning stages in Architectural Design.
There a lot of limitations in the previous CAD-tools, and design methodologies which
unable the material properties to be graded for both development and manufacturing
of multi material experiment. However, with the high market demands for multi
material products pressured the manufacturer to solve these difficulties in the
industry. The commercial CAD systems design and the geometry products and
mainly B-rep modellers. B-rep stands for Boundary re preparation, by the
definition of the outer surface it implies the system as solid only. Describing
the material composition of the enclosed volume at any point is not possible
with CAD systems. An extensive inventory of mathematical models to describe FGM
structures, maybe resulted certain prospective:

There are four main options of ‘methamatical models
to describe FGM’ according to Knoppers el al. (2005)


Voxels, that contains pixels, that is quantifies by a scalar and there
is no dimension.

FEM elements are used for Finite Element Analysis.

Particle system elements are objects that have mass, position, and
velocity, and respond to forces, but that have no spatial extend.

Vague Discrete Modelling (VDM) elements have been developed so that the
shape of a product doesn’t have to be completely defined.


these types of entities do have the major disadvantage of using a lot of
memory, some of them are rather complex or do not have any relation between the
entities, badly influencing the editing of these kind of formats. The top way
of understanding what a modelling system for FGM structures should have the
ability to do is analysing the situation from the use r point of view.


Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

 CFD can
solve the issue involving the simulations of the volume data and fluidity. It
has been a success proved in aerospace and other product design industries. The
existing technology to analyse and solve the involvement  of 
fluid flows using numerical analysis with a series of  fluid mechanics, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The
simulation of liquids and gases with surfaces that based on the boundary
conditions, calculated by computers as the method of calculations. With
high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. On going research yields
software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios
such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial experiment validation of such
software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale
testing, for example flight tests.


   The complicated
movements of gas and the flowing of liquids can be complex and very concoluted.
Moreover, the implementation of Simulation software makes the process of
analysing the movement a lot more easier and reduce time consuming. It enables
the user to predict the performance of their products before physical testing
as well. This results in a more optimized design early in the product
development cycle. In some cases, simulation can even replace the need for
physical testing, altogether. Simulation
software is based on the process of modelling
a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. It is, essentially, a program that allows the user to
observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that
operation. Simulation software is used widely to design equipment so that the
final product will be as close to design specs as possible without expensive in
process modification.





    RealFlow is a fluid and dynamics simulation tool for the 3D and
visual effects industry, developed by Next Limit Technologies. This stand-alone
application can be used in conjunction with other 3D programs to simulate
fluids, water surfaces, fluid-solid interactions, rigid bodies, soft bodies and
meshes. RealFlow technology uses particle based simulations.These particles can
be influenced in various ways by point-based nodes (daemons) which can do
various tasks such as simulate gravity or recreate the vortex-like motion of a


     The influential of computer to interpret them
into reality is important and it does matters. With the time constrain and cost
to tackle with, it is fair to say that without the help of computer it could
ruin the whole idea and process that designer trying to achieve. For example in
the complex and fast development of the technology nowadays, people tend to
build things faster and cost efficient.  




 Computer simulation
technology has allowed us to manipulate and observe the environment in which
has opened up possibilities in Design and research towards a better production
in Architectural Design. However, Digital technologies appear to be an excuse
to the traditional method of production. It scares the paper based production
in terms of timeline and cost especially. Furthermore, it also challenges the
digital thinking to be more precise towards a creative production and more
productive design in competing with the fast and complexity of digital based
design. The usage of simulations technology is not an easy task to make sure
that it’s synchronise with the physical model studies, for example the aim of
the fluid simulation process in multi-material is to optimise the structure
typology in connection with the skin-to-structure as one component.  

  In the fast growing
world of technologies. there is a need of understanding in synchronising the
old fashioned context and digital design based production. The first stage of
design process with the specific context of design dealing with site conditions
and research, parameters , paragmatic design are critical as a foundation of
design. The development of computation method would expand the creativity in
production of materials and develop more new invention to improve the standard
and quality in the market.