The world is the planet earth/ physical universe and all life upon it, including human beings who live here, but it doesn’t give meaning merely without a human being a conscious or social presence. However, those all are a partner in the generation of meaning. When human being interacting in and out among individual or groups of individuals, as distinguished from the physical world construct the meaning, develops and interprets within an essentially social context. There are different kinds of interaction methods it maybe through observation, talking each other and reading writing material. This implies that world exist because we give them a reality through mind or social agreement. Due to this researcher has developed assumptions about knowing where it lies, how it can be obtained and the methods of acquiring it. Thus, the position of the researcher with regard to knowledge matched with the views of the constructivists
In light of this, the theoretical perspective considered in this study constructivism is an epistemology embodies in many theoretical perspectives, including symbolic interpretivism as this is generally understood. As noted above, knowledge can be constructed through processes of interaction among individuals and group of individual. Moreover, ”all knowledge, and therefore all meaningful reality as such, is contingent upon human practices, being constructed and in and out of the interaction between human beings and their world…”(Crotty, 1998, p. 44). This means each individual mentally constructs the world of experience through cognitive processes. But not simply imprinted on individuals but are formed through interaction with others (hence social constructivism) and through value and cultural norms that operate in individuals’ lives (Creswell, 2014). Social constructionists’ have believes that ‘all reality, as meaningful reality, is socially constructed (Crotty, 1998, p.54)’. These social constructivism or constructivism joint with interpretivism is such a perspective, and it is typically seen as an approach to qualitative research (Crotty, 1998, p.52; Schwandt, et al, 1994).
In line with this process, to investigate the perceptions and experiences of employees or manger’s in education sector strategic decision-making processes and practices symbolic interactionism will also fitting as a theoretical perspective for a relatively distinctive approach to the study of human group life and human conduct’ inquiry. According to Blumer (1986, p. 1), there is three promises assumption.
Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that these things have for them; that the meaning of such things is derived from, and arises out of, the social interaction that one has with one’s fellows; that these meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things he encounters (p.2).
In common with constructionists or social constructionists, interpretivists in general focus on the process by which meanings are constructed, negotiated, sustained and reconstructed (Schwandt, et al, 1994). This kind of position requires to the understanding the idea that knowledge and reality are constructed through dynamic interaction with the world of lived personal, perceptions and experiences from the perspective of those who live in it. And this position also will help to the understanding of the strategic decision–making processes and practices of individual and collective meaning-making in the society, how their interpretation flows from their personal, perceptions and experiences if they start from reconstructing how people, institutions, and communications create their words or social reality. This comes into being by applying appropriate falls within the interpretive in which qualitative approach is largely inductive; the inquirer generates meaning from the data collected in the field (Cresweel, 2014).