THE reliability in order to avoid structureTHE reliability in order to avoid structure




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reliability and failure is the characteristic of
engineering which relates with the ability of a structure to support the load
of design such as weight and forces starved of breaking and consist of the
study of historical structural failures in order to avoid failures in the
upcoming design. Structural reliability
is the capability of an item either a structural component or may be structure
that consist of many component to combine together under a load including it
self-weight without change its shape overly. Failure of structure is the loss
of structural reliability or can be the loss of load that carry capacity.
Failure is started when a component is stressed over its strength limit,
affecting infringement and extreme distortion.

construction is performed when it’s designed function for reasonable use.
Components are built with structural reliability in order to avoid structure
from disastrous failure that can cause injuries, damage, harm, death and
financial fatalities. The case study that is going to be further discuss is
about a structural failure which happened in Riga, district of Zolitude. The structure
failure of Maxima Supermarket had caused the building to collapse in November
2013 and killed about 53 people. It has been exposed that the tragedy is caused
by the negligence of laws, carelessness of the people in charge during the
project run, management and execution of out the construction work. The
construction engineer, supervisor, and inspector of work were accused of guilty
in this accident because of destructions of construction guidelines.



collapse of the roof of the Maxima Shopping Mall in Zolitude the neighbourhood of Riga, Latvia has causes the death of 54
people including 3 rescuer and injuries
of 41 people. The incident took place on November 21, 2013 and was
the worst calamity in Latvia’s history since 1950 where the Mayakovsky steamer
sank in Riga killing a total of 147 people.

The witness of the incident stated that around 16:21 a fire alarm was switch off and the
store need to be evacuated. Security confirms the incident is
in connection with the construction of the underground
welding and causing the alarm to be turned off. The roof collapsed at 17:41, local
time. The collapse occurred during peak shopping hours and it
is estimated about
100 people involved in the incident. The police
has investigated three theories,
firstly there was an error in the design of the building structure and the
responsible party overseeing the plan was negligent in carrying out its duties.
Second it is related to the initial procedure during development and the last is due
to the construction of the green roof.

In January 2015, Ivars Serget a construction engineer and
a design expert of Andris Gulbis
and architect of Andris Kalinka is the first suspect
of the incident. Serget was accused of making mistakes in the design of the building’s roof
and Gulbis was speculated of negligence when inspecting and approving building
plans. Prosecutors Eriks Kalnmeiers said the design of the building could cause
a collapse. Those involved in the construction process did not do the work accordingly
that leads to the collapse of the shopping center roof. The initial
discovery, shows that the deformation of the
metal support structure, which happen before the targeted
design weight of the roof structure. This indicates that the construction done is not right
as the structure can not accommodate the design load.









Based on the evidence
presented by professional institution, it is obvious that the primary cause for
such collapse is the steel truss bolted tension connection.  There was an error in structural
design, and the authorities overseeing the plan had been
negligent; second, the cause is related to initial building procedures; third, it
was caused by the construction of the green roof.

Steel truss, is made out of
two pieces, which are assembled on site using bolted connections. The bottom
chord tension connection is at least two times
under-designed. The brittle connection is shown in figures 1. The
connection load carrying capacity can be manually calculated using yield-line
method or analysed using modern FEM tools. It can be seen from yield line
analysis and more advanced FEM-analysis, that bolt forces are not evenly
distributed. Centre bolt is completely useless in load carrying. The uneven
distribution of bolt loads is caused by well-known prying force phenomena. EN 1993-1-8 states: “Fasteners
are required to carry an applied tensile force, the design should be designed
to resist the additional force due to prying action, where this can occur”.
Here the bolts are experiencing prying forces. Experts have suggested that the supermarket
building itself may have been badly designed and so not able to support a
garden that was being built on the roof. Apart from that, substandard in
construction materials and corruption. The error from the bolt connection is
the biggest influence of this collapse. The collapse was the biggest loss of
life in Latvia for more than two decades. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE
STRUCTURE After the investigations
and causes have been done, there are few improvements that need to be taken to
re-construct the Maxima Supermarket building. There are three matters that need
to be focused on to improve the structure, which is in structural design,
building materials and manipulation of authorities (1).The main reason this
building has collapsed was due to the design of the building’s roof
construction causing it overload for a prolonged period of time and possibly by
metal fatigue. Hence, the authorities especially the architect, should inspect
and approve the design, and notice the error. The authorities should also make
the right estimation of the maximum load to be carried by the roof and the
design of the connections in the structural steel supporting the roof (2). Other than that, it is very crucial to ensure that
materials used to construct this building is suitable and meet the regulations.
The single truss should be used instead of using the two pieces of trusses
bolted together which this can cause the joint between the two trusses would
bear most of the roof’s weight. Besides that, the connections between the
horizontal bars that held the roof should be adequately designed. The engineers
should also make the right calculation of forces applied to the bolts so that
the load applied to the bolts is even (3).It was also reported that
the error was due to manipulation of authorities who had overseen the plan. To
improve this error, the Vikom Industry should hire a certified building
engineer to oversee the installation instead of hiring a subcontractor (4).
The construction
work on the roof should not be taking place when there were people in the
building which this involve the lives of many people if any accident happens.
Therefore, everyone who had been neglectful contributed to the accident and
should be held responsible.  FAILURE RELATION TO ETHICS
on this case study as an engineer,
Serget need to give a professional decision in doing the design of the
building. He need to consider the design that will affect the lives and
financial wellbeing of many people. During making a design of the building, he
must able to bring a professional ethic which is he need to be honest for the structure
that he operates. The engineer must work properly, for example in the
calculation of the load required for a building, they need to do a correct
calculation to ensure that the building is safe to use and does not suffer any
damage. Serget need to committe in the project. Engineers who have responsible
charge for a project are expected to exercise careful oversight before putting
their official stamp of approval on the project. However, what careful
oversight requires will vary depending on the project in question, in ways that resist an algorithmic articulation of the steps
to be taken and the criteria to be used.   An Engineer is responsible for the
protection of public safety, health and welfare. As stated in BEM Guidelines
for Code of Practice.Item 1.0: A
Register Engineer shall at all times hold paramount the safety, health and
welfare of the public.Engineers responsibility is make sure zero error in
designing the structure. They also have to ensure that all loading and
calculation that has been design for the structure is totally suitable with the
safety factor as all this factor is related to the Item 1.0. Before professionals engineer endorse any document for
submission to the authority he must check the document thoroughly as they
account some responsibilities for the related work. It has been clearly state
in BEM circular BEM (1989) that:1.      The
person (Professional Engineer) who submits a drawing must supervise the
construction work.2.      All
Professional Engineer are strongly advised not to certify completion of
construction if they have not carried out full time supervision, or if the
supervision has not been carried out by staff under his direct control.Regarding to this collapse,
professional institute may be think that, a few works from the developer
company or contractor for the project could be corrupt for sake of money.
Corruption in construction industries is something that should be avoid or
banned. This is because if something happen to the structure, Professional Engineers
that have endorse the drawing will uphold some responsibilities as stated
earlier. Action can be taken on the Professional Engineer if found out guilty
upon the hearing. As stated in BEM Guidelines for Code of Practice.Item 5.2: A
Registered Engineer shall not offer, give, solicit or receive either directly
or indirectly any contribution, any contribution to influence the award of
contract which may be reasonably construed as having the effect of intent to
influence the award of contract. He shall not offer any gift or any other
valuable consideration in order to secure work. He shall not pay a commission,
percentage or brokerage fee in order to secure work.Engineers also must be clear that he shall not
accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for
services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same project,
unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested
parties. Engineers in service as members, advisors, or
employees or department shall not participate in decisions with respect to
services solicited or provided by them or their organizations in private or
public engineering practice. Once the engineers is hired for the structure
designing, they only have authorities in structure part only and cannot be
included in others parts. Many intervention is also one of the mistakes that
caused the collapse of the structure. This is because the responsible person
for the project no longer has authorities on the decision for the project
making.                  CONCLUSION            In conclusion, there are a lot of factors led to the Maxima supermarket
collapsed in Riga. However, these factors mostly are due to human factors, such
as ignoring of laws, carelessness on the part of the engineer of managing the
project and supervising or carrying out the construction works. The consequent
of these act will cause the structure is not strong and tough enough to support
the load from the roof, because of either its size, shape, or choice of
material being construct. Hence, catastrophic failure may happen when the
structure is stressed beyond its critical stress level. The authorities such as
engineers, architects, and contractors should never abuse their power and
follow the code of ethics as the construction of the building will involve many
people’s lives. They should hire a certified worker when it comes to a work
which needed skills so that they know the faulty in the procedures. Moreover,
the contractors should always supervised and observed the workers at
construction’s site and ensure that the worker follows the procedure and do the
work.            In
addition, manufacturing errors may occur if the engineer is not supervising the
construction work in a proper way. For instances, improper selection of
materials, incorrect sizing, improper heat treating, failing to adhere to the
design, and shoddy workmanship. These manufacturing errors may happen at any
time and is usually unpredictable. The structure may also collapse due to the
improperly manufactured of material or damaged from prior use. Thus, the
authorities should ensure that the material used in the building suitable for
the design and make the right calculation for every loads and force applied to
the building. Obviously,
a deficiency in engineering ethics is found to be one of the root causes of an
engineering failure. Therefore, an engineer, as a professional, has a
responsibility to the client or employer, to the profession, and to the general
public, to perform their duties in as conscientious a manner as possible.                 REFERENCESCharles E.Harris, M. S. (2005). Engineering
Ethics -Concept and Cases. Canada: Nelson Education, Ltd.IDRUS, A., A. SULAIMAN, S.,
& KHAMIDI, M. (2010). ENGINEERS in SOCIETY. McGraw-Hill (Malaysia)
Sdn. Bhd.Kukemelk, M. (2013, 11 24). Engineer. The
Riga shopping center was like a motorcycle, the building was incorrectly
designed and the strength calculations were wrong (385).Latvia. (2015, 11
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