The the population. In such regions asThe the population. In such regions as

The probability of
young, economically active, people finding themselves in unemployment remains
considerably higher than for the rest of the population. In such regions as the
Arab States, Northern Africa and Southern Asia, youth comprise more than 40
percent of the total unemployed population, despite representing only 17
percent or less of the labour force within their respective regions. In
Northern, Southern and Western Europe, youth represent around 20 percent of the
total unemployed and around 10 percent of the total labour force. The ratio of
the youth-to-adult unemployment rate at the global level is an estimated 3.0 in
2017, with no change from the ratio ten years prior, due in part, to
improvements in Eastern Asia and Northern America. However, over the past
decade, youth unemployment rates have risen faster than the adult rates in half
of the regions analysed. The most severe growth in the ratio took place in
Southern Asia and South-Eastern Asia and the Pacific. In South-Eastern Asia and
the Pacific, youth unemployment rates are more than five times higher than the
adult rates. Not far behind are the Arab States and Southern Asia, where the
ratios are 4.5 and 3.9, respectively, in 2017. At the same time, especially in
developed countries, many young people experience extended periods of
unemployment, which can potentially hinder their skills development, future
employability and earning capacity. For instance, across Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, almost 18 percent of
unemployed youth were without work for a year or longer in 2016. In the first
quarter of 2017, this share was nearly 29 percent of unemployed youth in the 28
member countries of the European Union(EU-28), reaching almost 33 percent in
the euro area. The long duration of
unemployment spells risk leading to youth labour market detachment, especially
among young women and men seeking their
first job. Across OECD countries, there is
2.8 million youth in 2017 marginally attached to the labour market – neither
employed nor actively looking for work but willing to work and available to
take a job.

 

2.4.1 Contributions of youth unemployment
towards industrial relation

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Youth face many
challenges in the labour market. While finding employment is a major concern,
the quality of jobs is just as prominent a challenge. Many young people who
have found employment are unable to lift themselves and their families out of
poverty. Often, their jobs are informal, and thus they have limited legal and
social protection. Additionally, many youths today are not in employment,
education or training and thus constitute an untapped resource, with possible
long-term implications for their career prospects. Automation and technological
change are transforming youth labour markets. The pace of the adoption of new
technologies will differ across countries and regions. Just how it influences
the future of work will depend on demography and levels of development. The action is needed to ensure that the gains
can be shared as equitably as possible, and the negative impacts mitigated. The
surpluses from productivity gains that result from technological change must
promote full and productive employment for all to achieve inclusive growth.
Public policy has a critical role to play in this. If well managed, new
technology can aid action and programme delivery. This chapter discussed
policies for the future of work for young people, highlighting challenges,
opportunities, innovation and evidence to facilitate a smooth transition to
decent work. Promoting full and productive employment and efficiency and equity
in the pursuit of further economic development will require strong labour
market institutions, and coordinated policies based on robust statistics and
sound research, as well as dialogue with employers` and workers` associations
and youth groups. Regular and reliable data on the youth-specific labour market and transition indicators are critical for evidence-based policy making
and monitoring progress in a fast-changing
world of work. The actual policy mix to address the youth employment challenge
will depend on the local context but will include a combination of demand- and
supply-side policies and interventions, with an emphasis on the rights and
protection of young workers, especially the disadvantaged and vulnerable among
them. It is also necessary to build partnerships to scale up action. The Global
Initiative on Decent Jobs for Youth offers a unique platform for youth
employment stakeholders to address fragmentation, catalyze effective,
innovative and evidence-based action at country and regional levels, and
advance the Sustainable Development Goals.