analyses and interpretations of the various data gathered in response to the
objectives of the study are presented and discussed in a chronological order
following the arrangement of the objectives.
To provide a clearer
perspective on the result of the study, the presentation and analyses of the
various characteristics of the respondents per purok such as age, gender,
education, monthly income, number of household member, media access, household
ownership, and house structure are discussed separately.
The respondents are
household members of the seven (7) puroks of Barangay Santo Domingo Bay, Laguna
namely Daang Bakal, Ibaba, Ilaya, Kabaritan, Pookan, Sipit, and Tabon. There
are also respondents from the three (3) subdivisions namely Bay Garden,
Lakeshore, and Cambria. According to Savariz (2017), the subdivisions are private residential areas and
are not included in any purok. However, they were still considered as one site
because the subdivisions are still part of the barangay. Thus, the total number
of sites is nine (9).
by purok. Each purok has respondents that have varied age
distribution (see Appendix Figure 1). Puroks Daang Bakal, Ilaya and Kabaritan
have respondents who are mostly within the age range of 26 to 35 with equal
relative frequency of six (6) respectively. For purok Ibaba, ages of
respondents are almost equally distributed in each age ranges. Purok Ilaya has
also varied ages of respondents with 26 to 35 as the highest with relative
frequency of six (6). In purok Pookan, most of the respondents are in the
senior age with relative frequency of five (5). For purok Sipit and the
Subdivision areas, majority of their respondents are within the age range of 46
to 60 with equal relative frequency of five (5). Generally, bulk of respondents
in each purok are in the middle ages.
by purok. Majority of the respondents in each purok are females
with purok (see Appendix Figure 2). In purok Ilaya, all the respondents were
females. Purok Sipit, is the next highest with female respondents with relative
frequency of eleven (11), followed by purok Daang Bakal and the Subdivision
areas with equal relative frequency of nine (9), purok Kabaritan with relative
frequency of eight (8) and puroks Ibaba, Sipit and Tabon with equal relative
frequency of five (5). Female respondents dominates the respondents in each
purok for the mere reason that most them are available to be interviewed than males
because men are working most of the time. If in case they are both present,
females are more vocal or if not they have been pointed by their husband as
interviewee. Likewise, this conforms to the findings of Gayuma (2002) that
generally reflect the condition of the Filipinos where most of the males during
daytime were out to earn for living leaving behind the women to take care for
the kids and do household chores. However, there are also few male respondents
mostly from puroks Ibaba, Pookan and Tabon with equal relative frequency of
five (5) respectively.
Educational Attainment by purok. The respondents in each
purok have quite varied educational attainment (see Appendix Figure 3). The
bulk of respondents are high school level which are mostly from puroks Daang
Bakal, Ilaya, and Kabaritan equal relative frequency of seven (7), and from
puroks Ibaba and Sipit with equal relative frequency of five (5) respectively. The next bulk are in
elementary level lead by purok Pookan with the highest relative frequency of
five (5), and puroks Ilaya and Sipit with same relative frequency of four (4).
There are considerable number of respondents with highest educational
attainment of college level who are mostly from the Subdivision area with
relative frequency of eight (8) followed by purok Tabon with relative frequency
of five (5). There are few respondents
who are vocational level mostly from puroks Ilaya, Pookan and Tabon. Also, there are few respondents who does not
have formal education who are mostly from purok Sipit, Daang Bakal, and Pookan,
and who are ALS graduate who come from puroks Pookan and Tabon.
by Purok. Majority of the respondents in each purok are either
have no work or housewife with purok Sipit leading with highest relative
frequency of twelve (12), followed by purok Ilaya with relative frequency of
ten (10) (see Appendix Figure 4). Purok Sipit is the leading maybe because
majority of them are females and with high school as their highest educational
attainment. Purok Sipit is the leading maybe because the bulk of the
respondents are females who are high school or elementary level while some of them have no formal education. However,
there are also some respondents in each purok who are self-employed or are
engage into business especially in the Subdivision area with the highest
frequency of five (5) followed by purok Daang Bakal with a relative frequency
of four (4). There are also some who are private employee especially from purok
Kabaritan, Daang Bakal, Tabon, and in the Subdivision area. Three of the
respondents are government employee, two are from purok Kabaritan and one from
purok Tabon. There are also three who are farmers, two from purok Sipit and one
from Ibaba which have rice fields. One of the respondents is a fisherman from
purok Tabon. Respondents who are included in the others job category are mostly
of retired employee mainly from purok Pookan These are the puroks with senior
citizen respondents and their highest educational attainments are: elementary,
college , and vocational levels.
income by purok. The graph is skewed to the left which
means that most of the respondents
in each purok have low to very low monthly income (see Appendix Figure 5).
Majority of the respondents in each purok have a very low monthly income
ranging from PhP1, 000.00 to PhP5, 000.00, with purok Sipit having the highest
relative frequency of more than ten (10). Purok Sipit is expected to the
leading in the lowest monthly income range because most of the respondents either do not have job or are plain housewive.
This is followed by income range from PhP 6,000.00 to PhP 10,000.00 which is
still low. But there are also respondents, especially in the Subdivision area,
who stated that their monthly income ranges from PhP26, 000.00 and above which
is expected as it is also the area where college level respondents come from.
The result of the study
therefore indicates that the respondents have low monthly income far lower than
the required per capita poverty threshold of PhP11,000.00 per month of a family
of five (5) to meet the food and the non-food basic needs of the family in the
year 2000 (Benigno, 2004). Moreover, based on the assessment of National
Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), such income is on the poverty line.
NEDA pegged the threshold income of a family of five (5) at PhP13, 000.00 to
PhP15, 000.00 to be above the poverty level (Lugares, 2007).
of household member by purok. Majority of the
respondents in each purok has a family member ranging from 1 to 5 with the Subdivision
area having the highest relative frequency of ten (10) (see
Appendix Figure 6). This is expected as majority of the respondents from the
Subdivision area has the highest educational attainment and are working so they
have better family planning management. There are also some respondents with
family members of 6 to 10 while only few respondents have more than ten (10)
family members. These come from puroks Ibaba, Ilaya, Kabaritan, and Sipit.
Access by purok. Most of the respondents in each purok have
at least two (2) or three (3) appliances/gadgets for media access (see
Appendix Figure 7). In purok Tabon, all the respondents have at least 2 to 3
appliances and/or gadgets for media access. In the Subdivision areas majority
of the respondents also have at least 2 to 3 appliances/gadgets followed by
puroks Pookan, Ilaya and Ibaba. Though majority of the respondents in each
purok have the lowest range of monthly income, they were able to buy said
appliances and/or gadgets may be because of their importance especially for
communication and access to information. But there are also respondents who
only have television with purok Sipit having the highest, followed by puroks
Ilaya and Kabaritan. Majority of respondents having radio only and cellphone only
comes from purok Kabaritan. Similarly, respondents having only computer with
internet access all comes also from purok Kabaritan. It is observed that all of
the respondents from purok Kabaritan have only one appliances and/or gadgets
either of television, radio, computer, and cellphone for media access. This may
be related to their monthly income wherein majority of the income ranges from
PhP1, 000.00 to PhP5, 000.00 while some
have PhP6, 000.00 to PhP10, 000.00 which is still under poverty line.
ownership by purok. Majority of the respondents in each purok
own their houses with Sipit having the highest relative frequency of twelve
(12) followed by puroks Ilaya, Daang Bakal, and Kabaritan (see Appendix Figure 8).
Though majority of the respondents in each purok have a very low monthly
income, they were able to build a house of their own. Emphasis is given to
purok Sipit which has the highest relative frequency of very low income but
have the highest relative frequency also when it comes to house ownership.
Similarly, there are also some of the respondents who are renting which comes
mostly from purok Tabon. Respondents who are living with relatives and who are
caretakers came from purok Ilaya .
structure by purok. Most of the respondents in each purok have
house structure of concrete and a combination of wood and cement. Puroks Tabon
has the highest respondents with concrete house with a relative frequency of
more than eight, followed by the Subdivision areas and purok Kabaritan with
both relative frequency of eight (8) (see Appendix Figure 9).
Consequently, majority of respondents from purok Daang Bakal has house made
with combination of wood and cement with relative frequency of more than eight,
followed by puroks Ibaba and Pookan with relative frequency of seven (7) and
six (6) respectively. Furthermore, there are also respondents with houses made
of wood particularly in purok Sipit having the highest relative frequency of
six (6), followed by purok Ilaya and Ibaba with relative frequency of three (3)
and two (2) respectively.