The the specific procedure to determine theThe the specific procedure to determine the

purpose of this chapter is to describe details on the methodology that has been
applied in this study such as research design, population, sample and sampling
procedure, instrument, pilot study, validity and reliability, ethics of the
study, data collection procedure and data analysis procedure. Further to this,
Rusli Ahmad, Hasbee Usop, Azman Ismail, Sopian Bujang, Nur Naha stated
designing a research study involves a choice of research approach (2014). Therefore, research approaches will be
discussed before discussing the type of research design which is the specific
procedure to determine the direction of the study. Moreover, the researcher
will look into the population, sample and sampling, the type of research
instrument adopted to collect data, the level of validity and reliability, data
collection and data analysis procedure which is carried throughout the research.

3.1       Research design

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design is the researcher’s plan to acquire an understanding of some group or
some phenomenon (Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen, 2010). Additionally, research design is
important because it ensures that researcher is providing good answers to their
research questions (Easterby-Smith, Thorphe and Lowe, 2002). Therefore, the
researcher must choose an appropriate research design that fits into the

methodology suits to generate the finding on the implementation of Key
Performance Indicator (KPI) in organization. This approach will help to provide
depth and details of the perception focuses on insight of the study. Patton
(2001) stated qualitative research approach seeks to understand phenomena in
real world setting where the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the
phenomena of interest. Qualitative research, broadly defined, means the kind of
research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical
procedures or other mean of quantification (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Hence,
the findings of qualitative study will attempted to explain how things happen
and related rather than for measuring the relationship between variables
(Gordon and Langmaid, 1988).




Population, sample &
sampling procedure

This study was conducted at Al-Islam Specialist Hospital in Kuala
Lumpur. Al-Islam Specialist Hospital is a healthcare private sector or formerly
known as the Kampong Baru Medical Center (KBMC). It was developed in 1992 as a
medical hospital under the programs of the Islamic Youth Force Bill (ABIM)
program providing the full range of treatments including physical,
psychological, mental and spiritual aspects.


According to Rusli Ahmad, Hasbee Usop, Azman Ismail, Sopian Bujang and
Nur Naha (2014), population defined people or items with the characteristic one
wish to understand.  Approximately, there are
250 employees including clinical and non-clinical staff from 25 departments in
the organization. However, the sample are focusing on
Human Resources practitioner as informant for the purpose of this study. Further to this, only four employees from human
resources department will be selected for the interview due to the nature and scope
of an inquiry to explore the actual process on the implementation of KPI in the
organization. This is supported by Chua (2012) stated that sampling is the
process of acquiring research respondents through selecting a number of people
who are representative of the population.


purposive sampling has been carried out in this study because the researcher
has identified sample of informants with a purpose in mind. Additionally, purposive
sampling will discard unfits informants
who do not meet the specific characteristic of interest regarding the research.
Rusli et, al.(2014) stated the researcher is likely to obtain opinion from
selected informants because the informants will generate useful data after has
been verified. Subsequently, more time and cost can be saved from interviewing informants who are not relevant for this
study. On the other word, selecting informants will help the researcher to explore the
highlighted issues as the informants are more focused and understand the
content of this study.








3.3       Instrument

Interview method has been selected as
the research instrument. Rusli Ahmad et, al. stated interview is a process of
communication directly between the researcher and informants by asking question
and recording answers (2014). Interview is a popular research technique in qualitative
methodology especially in the area of ethnographic research. Specifically, structured interview has been conducted to present
the findings. The researcher will provide an interview sequence with
predetermined questions. Next, the researcher will use the same interview
sequence for each informant to avoid biases that may result from inconsistent
interviewing practices. The structured interview consists of several questions
aimed to identify the procedures of KPI implementation in Al-Islam Specialist
Hospital. A total of four informants from Human Resources practitioner have
been selected for the interview session. Inputs and opinion from the experts
are important in order to obtain the real issues regarding KPI implementation.

3.4       Ethics of
the study

This research will be conducted without neglecting any unethical issues;
before, during and after the research. Additionally, Ahmad et al., stated
ethics is concerned on moral principle and values which can influence the
research procedure and findings (2014). Therefore, the researcher must be aware
to keep the private and confidential data in a safe way.

First, the informants will be given a consent letter regarding the
interview procedures. The consent letter must be contain the term and
regulation of the data collection process. Further to this, the researcher must
explains to the informants verbally to avoid miscommunication between the two
parties, informant and researcher. Moreover, this will help the informants gain
insight regarding the question.

Next, the researcher also need to ask the permission from the informants
to record the answers before the interview is conducted (Ahmad et al., 20014). Additionally,
the researcher is responsible of all the data that has been obtained from the
informants to avoid any unharmed things happen in the future. Therefore, the
confidential data of informant must be not shared with public and only use for
academic purpose.




Data collection

First and foremost,
the researcher need to seek out the relevant issues dealing with this topic.
Therefore, the researcher must find out the root related to this study through
primary and secondary source of literature review. For instance, journals,
books and company reports. Hence, these sources will help the researcher
leading a research direction (Rusli et al., 2014).

Next, the
researcher must getting an acknowledgment letter from University specifically
from Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development. The acknowledgment
letter act as a proof in order to obtain a private and confidential data from
the informants. Thus, this will ease researcher to conduct the interview with
informants. Despite of conducting a face-to-face interview, the researcher need
to provide a consent letter for informants beforehand to get the permission to
conduct and gain the information which is related to this topic. Moreover, the
researcher may approaches two data which is in the form of note or tape record
the interview. However, the researcher has the eligible to do so if only the
researcher has obtained the permission from the informant.

Last but not least,
an appointment will be arranged between the two parties, researcher and
informants. This step is essential because both parties need to choose the
flexible time which suits to conduct the interview. The process of interviewing
will consume an hour only because each informant has been provided 15 minutes
only. Thus, the data collection will be completed obtain from the informants to
proceed for the next procedures.