topic of the article, “Examining the Relationship between Authenticity and
Self-Handicapping,” is that different types of people with different
characteristics may allow certain people to be more prone to self-handicapping.
The purpose of the study, conducted by Ahmet Akin and Umran Akin (2014), was to
determine whether or not there is a relationship between the attribute of
authenticity and the act of self-handicapping. The authors explained that the phenomena
being studied can be tied to other dreadful manifestations and have deleterious
impacts on a person: self-handicapping, which can affect a person’s “sense of
self worth,” may ultimately cause “psychological symptoms, less competence
satisfaction, more extrinsic motivation” that can also lead to “more negative
emotions and symptoms such as burnout, depression, and anxiety” (A. Akin &
U. Akin, 2014).
authors also stated many definitions of authenticity, but focus on the
“three-dimensional authenticity model” consisting of three different elements:
“self-alienation, accepting external influence, and authentic living.” (A. Akin
& U. Akin, 2014). As stated before, self-handicapping can affect self-worth
and cause mental illnesses. With other earlier studies, they deduced that
people with low authenticity and/or low self-worth may be tied to more
experience with self-handicapping (A. Akin & U. Akin, 2014). With that
said, the hypothesis given for this study was that authentic people were
anticipated to not self-handicap as much as others living without much
authenticity (A. Akin & U. Akin, 2014). In addition to this, the
researchers also predicted that “self-alienation and accepting external
influence will be associated positively” (A. Akin & U. Akin, 2014).
participants used in this study were specifically college students. There were
a total of 190 female and 176 male participants (366 total), with ages ranging
from “18 to 28 years old” (A. Akin & U. Akin, 2014). The students were recruited from being in 5 of
the selected undergraduate programs: “Turkish education, primary school education,
social science education, science education, and psychological counseling and
guidance” (A. Akin & U. Akin, 2014). In addition to this, it is important
how the participants were recruited. In this study, the students were
voluntary, and in the different departments from which the students came from,
the researchers were granted permission for the study (A. Akin & U. Akin,
2014). To add to this, the students were anonymous; the volunteers were
guaranteed secrecy and to not have their identities open to the public (A. Akin
& U. Akin, 2014).
the study, the researchers used direct, self-report measures to obtain the
measurements needed. To specify, they were able to apply the Turkish rendition
of the “Authenticity Scale” and the “Self-Handicapping Scale” to collect the
scores, which in turn determined the levels of authenticity and susceptibility
to self-handicapping (A. Akin & U. Akin, 2014). Furthermore, the
statistical measures used in this study were “multiple linear regression” and
“Pearson correlation;” they used the ratings from each measurement scale to
input into the two methods of measuring the statistical data (A. Akin & U.
conducting the tests, the results showed that the researcher’s hypothesis was
correct. There were positive correlations with “accepting external influence
and self-alienation” in relation to self-handicapping, and negative
correlations with authenticity in relation to self-handicapping (A. Akin &
U. Akin, 2014). During the discussion
section of the report, the researchers went into depth about why the results
came out to be how they had hypothesized. They explain that people with high
self-worth and high authenticity will not necessarily feel the need to handicap
themselves because they are “more likely to be resilient to the threat of
failure,” and vice versa for those with low self-worth and low authenticity (A.
Akin & U. Akin, 2014).