Throughout from “testing new drugs to infectingThroughout from “testing new drugs to infecting

Throughout human history, our race has depended on other organisms such as animals like for food and clothing. With curiosity and a developing intelligence, humans began testing on animals to benefit themselves which led to many discoveries in the medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. According to Cruelty-Free International, an organization with experts in the field of animal testing, animal testing or vivisection is defined as “any scientific experiment or test in which a live animal is forced to undergo something that is likely to cause them pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm.” Most of the times animals are harmed and will probably suffer throughout the process. Animal testing is a global controversial topic with serious points of view and ethics. Animal testing should be universally banned because these animals are harmed throughout the process and the different religions and cultures might have different perspectives on it which can cause controversy between different social groups. When testing, animals undergo certain processes that are harmful and painful to them. The main purpose is to gain information and test this product on animals in order to find out if they are safe for humans to use. The use of animal testing has been common for years now and it’s used for research purposes, but these animals are being harmed. Animals chosen for testing are bought or adopted by scientists in order to test on them. Any type of animal can be used, but most of the time scientists use terrestrial animals because they are easier to manipulate than marine animals. The most commonly used are dogs, cats, rabbits, ferrets, pigs, sheep, monkeys, chimpanzees and more but mice, rats, and birds are the most prominent ones used in research due to their size.  According to the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS), a Boston based national animal advocacy organization, discusses painful protocols on animals that can include everything from “testing new drugs to infecting with diseases, poisoning for toxicity testing, burning skin, causing brain damage, implanting electrodes into the brain, maiming, blinding and more.” Not only are the animals harmed throughout the process but they will most likely die during or after these procedures. In order for scientists to test on animals, they have to immobilize them. They can use multiple methods of restraining the animals with straps but for those that are smaller, they result on using anesthetization, intubation, and euthanasia which are the most common and require extensive training. If performed improperly they can cause extreme pain and discomfort. (NEAVS, n.d.). If scientists proceed to properly utilize these methods and manipulate these animals with care, they’re suffering can indeed be prevented moreover their deaths as well. Nonetheless, not all methods guarantee this, such as euthanasia, which kills an organism painlessly.    In our world, science and religion disagree on many aspects of each other’s beliefs and how certain things are done. The scientific and medical view on animal testing is very different to those of religious groups. According to Dinesh K Badyal, an Indian pharmacologist that conducts Clinical Pharmacology and toxicology research he discusses that “The mission of medicine is to eliminate suffering to maintain a good health, which may prolong the life.” Every experiment conducted was done for a purpose in which the results might have been the cure for a disease or new findings that benefit the human race. On the contrary, in certain religions, animal life is valued to a certain degree. The Islam religion has a great view on animal welfare and they believe that they’re (humans) well being is as important as the animals’. In the Hadith, one of the Islamic sacred books, prophet Muhammad says “A good deed done to an animal is as meritorious as a good deed done to a human being, while an act of cruelty to an animal is as bad as an act of cruelty to a human being.” (Rahman, S. A. 2017). Their beliefs are based on good deeds not only to humans but also animals in which animal testing would contradict this. The Christian view on animal testing is not quite different as the Islamic one. Christians believe as said in the Bible “A righteous man has regard for the life of his animal, But even the compassion of the wicked is cruel.” (Proverbs 12:10) In this quote from the Bible God reflects on humans that although they might take advantage of animals for their own survival, animals are also God’s creatures that have souls and should be treated with respect.  According to Jewish Law, animals have the same right as humans do. Regarding all the kosher rules of their religion,  Jewish respect animals and value what they provide humans with. “The Holy One, Blessed Be He, said ‘Since you are merciful to the flock of a human being, you shall be the shepherd of My flock, Israel.” (Gen. 24). In this quote from the Torah in which a woman was rewarded marriage because of her kindness to animals, it is visible to see how animals are key in the Jewish religion and they shall be kind to them and respect them at all times (Rich, R. T. 2011). The different perspectives on animal treatment and experimentation between the scientific and medical community can be controversial due to a difference in beliefs which would give researchers a chance to inquire for new methods of animal testing.       As the years pass, the world changes including with it humans and their thoughts about certain topics, like animal experimentation. With new advancements in technology, there has been discovered new ways in which animal testing can be replaced by other procedures less harmful to living organisms. Dr. Geoff Watts, a freelance Science, and Medical Journalist wrote on one of his journals regarding animal testing, about the several methods that can replace animals. One of them is the growth of cells, tissues, and skin in culture. This new method can create the skin like MatTek has done in which “Its EpiDerm system comprises a sheet of human skin cells growing on the surface of a culture medium in a small plastic well. The solution to be tested is dripped on to the surface of the sheet then rinsed off after a set time.” This new method can help patients with skin burns to heal faster without harming animals. Even though this might be a great solution, not every nation in the world might be able to have access to this. While some countries from the third world have the opportunity to use this method, countries from the first world are most likely not going to be able to use this due to economic reasons.     Even though animals have always benefited the human race by providing us with food to develop and grow, with food to cover our bodies and help us in many more tasks through our human life, the views on today’s world has changed and will keep changing as the years go by. The harmful and painful processes that animals of all kinds go through for our benefit are not worth it when there are other methods of research available for us to use. The large contradictions between religious groups and science are worth changing to prevent controversy because most of them have a similar view on caring and protecting animals who don’t deserve to suffer and go through excruciating pain. Overall the use of animal testing should be banned to prevent animals from suffering and to avoid controversy between groups and their members.