To designed to create a health drinkTo designed to create a health drink

To assess the nutritional value of a newly formulated health drink having similar effects of tea:Type of manuscript:Original ResearchRunning Title:To assess the nutritional value of a newly formulated health drinkP.Keshaav KrishnaaUndergraduate Student Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University,ChennaiDr.V.Vishnu PriyaProfessor and HeadDepartment of BiochemistrySaveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, ChennaiGayathri.KAssistant Professor Department of BiochemistrySaveetha Dental College, Saveetha University,ChennaiCorresponding Author:Dr.V.Vishnu PriyaProfessor and HeadDepartment of BiochemistrySaveetha Dental College, Saveetha University,ChennaiEmail:[email protected] number:9841445599Introduction:Initially the composition of tea was studied and the effect of each compound was observed. On referring a few articles It was found that tea is majorly composed of Polyphenolic compounds. Majorly among the polyphenolic compounds were flavonoids. Within flavonoids the major one was tannins 1. Tannins on oxidation produced theaflavins and thearubigins which were responsible for the dark colour and robust flavour of tea. Other major flavonoids that were present were Catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatchin ( Which is not present in green tea), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).2 EGCG is present in higher levels in green tea in comparison with that of normal tea. EGCG is the compound that is majorly responsible for the amazing properties of green tea. It is responsible for the anti cancerous property.3 The compound which causes weight loss etc. Amino acids that are present in tea are majorly responsible for the brothiness and umami taste of green tea. Out of which the major amino acid present is L-Theanine. L- theanine is responsible for that feeling of relaxation that we get when we drink tea. It also promotes brain activity. The enzymes that are present in tea include polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase which are responsible for the browning of tea leaves4. Heat inhibits these enzymes that is why the green tea leaves remain green. They contain the pigments, chlorophyllm carotenoids and xanthophylls. Carbohydrates account for about 11% which is for the sweetness. It contains methylxanthines such as caffeine which is a stimulant, theobromine and theophylline. Minerals present include Florine, Manganese, Arsenic, nickel, selenium, iodine, aluminium and potassium.Many health drinks are available in the commercial market, but only very few of them are likeable by a human being. The field has grown vastly yet many side effects exist from various health drinks. Health drinks should have multiple beneficial properties but no negative properties at the same time. Thus the study was designed to create a health drink and to asses the nutritive value of the same before leading to further investigations. Materials and Methods:Formulation of Health Drink:1g of black tea contains about 22 to 28mg of caffeine whereas 1g of green tea contains about 11 to 20mg of caffeine. A clinical study which was conducted had two groups, each group was given tea for 12 weeks. The tea of group A had 690mg of catechism whereas that of group B had only 22mg of catechins. After 12 weeks the weight loss was checked and the lipoproteins were checked. The weight loss was more in group A than in group B, and the decrease in lipoproteins was more in group A than in group B.For the prevention and treatment of oral diseases the following properties are required: 1) Promotes saliva flow as the buffer action of saliva would increase the pH2) Decrease the acidity 3) Destroys the microbial biofilm 4) Prevents the adherence and proliferation of S. mutans which is one of the main causative organism for caries.5) Increased fluoride content as it prevents caries6) There should be minimal or no sucrose as it is principal for causing caries when compared to glucose and fructose.    Keeping all these qualities in mind and also trying to add more health benefits the following compounds were chosen:1) Turmeric2) Black pepper 3) Mango peel and fruit4) Raisins 5) Almonds.The reasons as to why these compounds were chosen and their nurituonal effects are given below: Turmeric:Various studies have said that turmeric prevents the adherence of S. Mutans on to the tooth surface. It also increases the quality of skin and has various medicinal properties. It has anti inflammatory, antifungal and anti bacterial properties. The main component focussed here is curcumin which is nothing but diarylheptanoid. It is insoluble in water. The solubility of curcumin is increased by 2000% in the presence of piperene 5. Other volatile compounds include tumerone which is said to cure Alzheimer’s. Curcumin also decreases diabetes and blood pressure. Turmeric also consists of Altatone and Zingiberene Black pepper: Black pepper consists of piperene, which increases the absorption of curcumin. It also consists of amides, piperidines, iron, manganese and vitamin K. White pepper has more quantity of piperene than that of black pepper.Mango peel and fruit: Mango can also be used in the form of Vimang. Vimang is an aqueous bark extract of mango. Mango peel consists of carotenoids, B-carotene( which help in vit A syn), Gallic acid, alpha carotene, caffeine acid, lutein, catechism and tannins. It also contains mangiferin which is exclusive In mangoes.Raisin: Raisins or dried grapes consists of 156mcg of fluorine in 100g. Thus it would help to prevent caries formation. It consists of 72% carbohydrates out of which 30% are fructose and 28% is glucose. Thus it would make the drink tasty as well. Raisins help to decrease the blood pressure as well. According to studies, raisins interferes with the proliferation of S. Mutans. To add to al, these benefits it also helps in detoxification when soaked in water.Almonds: Almonds contain L-Theanine 7. This helps to reduce stress and also helps to offer proper sleep and prevent sleeping in the day. This also provides the feeling of relaxation.The above mentioned ingredients were taken in a measured quantity and the resulting solution was tested for the carbohydrate content, protein content and other quantitative measures. These norms would suggest a better knowledge about the newly formulated health drink.Nutritive Analysis:Analysis of Carbohydrate:Nutritive databases may provide values for total carbohydrate or for available carbohydrate. Total carbohydrate values in the tables are calculated by difference using the following formula for 100g of foodCarbohydrate= 100g – (g protein+ g fat+ g alcohol + g ash+ g water)Carbohydrate calculated in this manner includes dietary fibre as well as other components of a food that are non protein, fat,alcohol,ash or water. Determination of Crude Protein:Ten grams of the sample was weighed and transferred into a Kjedahl flask. Four tablets of Kjedahl catalysts(Tablet consists of 1g Na2SO4 and 0.5g of selenium) were added. Concentrated H2SO4 (20ml) and glass beads were added to avoid any bumping on heating. The flask was set in the fume cupboard and heated gently until the mixture becomes colourless. The heating process was approximately one hour after which it was allowed to Cool down to room temperature slowly and washed. 20ml of distilled water is then added into 500ml distillation flask.Distillation:Pieces of hot cleats were added into the flask and connected up to the splash head and water cooled condenser. NaOH solution (5%, 4ml) was added in the dropping funnel and 50ml of 2% boric acid into the 250ml receiving flask with methyl red indicator. The dropping funnel tap was opened slowly to allow the NaOH to enter the boiling flask. The distillation flask was heated to boiling with water passing through the condenser. Distillation continues until about 150ml was collected in the receiving flask. The content of the flask was titrated with 0.5 M HCL until pink end point. The reading was recorded and blank was ran along the same treatment. Determination of Fat/Oil:Ten grams of weighed sample was transferred into thimbles of a Soxhlet extractor containing 250 ml of petroleum ether. The thimble and the contents were placed in a 100ml beaker and dried in an oven for 30 minutes at 105-110*C to expel trances of moisture. The beaker was rinsed with the extractant and added to the Soxhlet extractor. The sample was extracted for 7 hours at a condensation rate of 240 drops per minute. After the extraction the sample was transferred to an already weighed evaporating dish and rinsed 2-3 times with the extractant. The dish was placed in a fume chamber to cause solvent to evaporate. The sample was dried in an oven for an hour at 105 degrees to 110 degrees and then cooled in a desiccator and weighed.The percentage Oil weight was calculated as:% crude fat= weight of dish+ contents after drying- weight of empty evaporating dish x 100                       ———————————————————————————————————                             Weight of sample taken for analysis Determination of Fiber Content:Two grams of the ground sample was weighed and placed in a conical flask. The sample was extracted by stirring with petroleum ether. 200ml of 1.25% H2SO4 solution was heated to boiling and transferred to the dried sample. The sample was then allowed to settle. The flask was connected to a water cooled reflux condenser and heated. The flask was boiled gently for 30 minutes and mixed. The flask was removed and filtered using a filter paper held in the funnel and washed with boiling water until no longer acidic to litmus paper. 200 ml of 1.25% NaOH was brought to boiling under a reflux condenser. The alkaline solution was used to wash the sample back into the initial flask and then boiled for 30 minutes under condenser. Again, the flask was removed and immediately filtered. All the insoluble matter was then transferred to the sintered crucible using boiling water. The residue was washed first with boiling water, 1% HCL and boiling water to render the insoluble matter free of acid. The residue was washed three times with alcohol and diethether and then dried in an oven at 150 degrees to a constant weight. The dried sample was also ashes by incineration in a muffle furnace at 560 degrees for an hour. The crucible was cooled in desicators and then weighed % crude fibre= weight of insoluble matter – matter of ash x 100                          ——————————————————————-                                      Weight of sampleDetermination of Calcium:The sample was placed in an atomic photometer and the results were obtained from the same apparatusReferences:1. Penelope Ody (2000). Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 0-7894-6785-2.2. Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Transport by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K and P-Glycoprotein.Knop J1, Misaka S2, Singer K1, Hoier E1, Müller F1, Glaeser H1, König J1, Fromm MF1.3. Havsteen B. The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids. Pharmacol Ther. 2002;96:67–202. PubMed4. Feng WY. Metabolism of green tea catechins: an overview. Curr Drug Metab. 2006;7:755–809.  PubMed5. JoeB, VijaykumarM, LokeshBR. Biological properties of curcumin-cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44:97–1116. McNamara, F. N.; Randall, A.; Gunthorpe, M. J. (March 2005). “Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1)”. British Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (6): 781–7907. Chen CY, Lapsley K, Blumberg J. A nutrition and health perspective on almonds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2006;86:2245–2250. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.26598. Anti-depressant like effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine in unpredictable chronic stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical changes, Mohit Kumar Bhutani et al,Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour, Volume 92 issue 1, March 2009, 39-43