Unprotected a condom during sex which increasesUnprotected a condom during sex which increases

Unprotected Sex and
HIV Transmission

Several occasions
that sex partners go unprotected sex

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1. Alcohol

Consuming
alcohol prior to sex is a major factor of unprotected sex in partners. A
research has predicted that Probability of having sex increases as participants
consume any amount of alcohol and consume the increasing
amount of alcohol. Secondly, probability
of having unprotected sex increases as participants consume increasing amount
of alcohol.

2. Power
difference

Sometimes people
are afraid of their partner’s reaction
and cannot ask the other to wear a condom during sex which increases the probability of getting or
transmitting HIV. This is an example of how power difference is harmful. It is
even harder to ask a partner to wear a condom in abusive and violent
relationships.  

How
is HIV transmitted through sex?

HIV occurs
through transfer of blood, pre-ejaculation, semen and vaginal fluids. The
reason why sexual activity is a risk for transmission of HIV is that it allows for the exchange of body fluids
like blood, semen and vaginal secretions between partners.

1. Vaginal
Intercourse

The most common
way of transmission of HIV in the world
is unprotected vaginal intercourse. It has been revealed in a study that
male-to-female HIV transmission during vaginal intercourse is notably more
likely than female-to-male HIV transmission. That is to say, HIV-positive men
transmit the virus to HIV-negative women through vaginal intercourse more than the
HIV-positive women transmit the virus to HIV-negative men because of the larger surface area of mucosal tissues of
women and lining of both the vagina and cervix are
rich in immune system cells which can damage easily. HIV is transmitted in men
occurs through the lining of urethra inside the tip of the penis or through a wound or cut on penis
foreskin.

2. Anal
Intercourse

There is a high
risk of occurring HIV through anal intercourse. A receptive partner is at much
higher risk for HIV during unprotected anal intercourse but each of two
partners can get HIV infected. The reason for this is HIV virus mixed with
semen is transmitted through direct contact with anal mucosal tissues. It has
been demonstrated in a study that pre-ejaculate (pre-cum) can contain high
amounts of HIV and can result in transmission during anal intercourse.

It is possible
for an insertive partner to get HIV
infected through a wound or cut on the penis or through the lining of the
urethra inside the tip of the penis.

How
and why unprotected sex have high rates of HIV transmission?

Unprotected sex has high rates of HIV transmission if you have
sexual partners with a different HIV status than you. The probability of
transmitting HIV increases with a high viral load, and the probability of
getting HIV also increases if your partner has a sexually transmitted disease
(STD). If you have several sex partners then the chance of having intercourse
with a partner who has a different HIV status than you increases so the risk of
getting HIV increases.

 

1. Having
a different HIV status than your partner

It is necessary
that the sex partners know the HIV status of each other. If your HIV status is
negative and you are involved in sex with a partner who is HIV-positive then
your chances of getting HIV increase, and this probability increases each time
you have sex with this partner.

2. Having
sex with several sex partners

If you and your
sex partners have overlapping sex partners, your risk of getting HIV increases.
The reason for this is that the more sexual partners you have in your lifetime,
the more probably you are to have sex with HIV infected person. IF you are
sexually active, you should have sex with fewer partners in future.

How
is HIV prevented through sex?

1. Use
of condom.

The probability
of occurring HIV will significantly be lower if a condom is accurately used
during sex.

Pre-exposure
prophylaxis (PrEP), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and treatment as
prevention are some other methods of protection during intercourse.

2. Use
pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

To lower the
probability of getting HIV, an HIV-negative
person can take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) pill to reduce the risk
of HIV by more than 90 percent

 

3. Use
post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

PEP consists of
taking prescription antiretroviral medications after a recent vulnerability to
HIV. It is a short course used in an emergency
situation, generally for a month, after 72 hours of viable exposure.

4. Treatment
as prevention

Treatment as
prevention consists of taking medication to decrease the quantity of virus in
blood so that the probability of that individual transmitting HIV to a sexual
partner may decrease.

 

References

cdc. (n.d.). increased risk.
Retrieved december 9, 2017, from cdc:
https://wwwn.cdc.gov/hivrisk/increased_risk/
poz. (2017, October 27). HIV
Transmission and Risks. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from poz:
https://www.poz.com/basics/hiv-basics/hiv-transmission-risks