V2X is a technology that allows vehicles to communicate with other parts of the traffic system around them. V2V or vehicle-to-vehicle, allows vehicles to communicate with other vehicles. V2I, or vehicle-to-infrastructure, allows vehicles to communicate with other system around them such as streetlights, building, streets, or even cyclists or pedestrians.
Vehicle communication system is conceptually simple, it is a mobile terminal that is embedded in vehicles and configured to exchange messages with other mobile terminals or fixed infrastructure terminals. Vehicle-to-vehicle exchange is generally to communicate the state of vehicle with other vehicles or vehicle itself. Vehicle-to-infrastructure exchange is required to access remote services, to receive a safety information of a roadway, etc. (2).
Recently, vehicle manufacturing has changed significantly, with increasing of embedded systems and embedded software application which integrated in vehicles. A modern vehicle is equipped up to 100 embedded microcontroller-based computers, known as Electronic Control Units (ECUs). These ECUs in a vehicle are connected via different types of communication buses (e.g. CAN, MOST, FlexRay,LIN, etc.), forming a different distributed system.
With the advent of wireless network interfaces, the automotive on-board networks have more opportunity for tampering. The on-board electronics will be threatened attacks both inside and outside the vehicle. The main components that may the most target of attackers in an automotive on-board network are the on-board electronics (e.g. ECUs, sensors, actuator, etc.), the software that is running on ECUs, and the communication links.
The increasing of connectivity in a vehicle improve the functionality, capability and the utility of vehicle. On the other hand, however, this may cause more cybersecurity threats and the vehicles will be more vulnerable to attacks from adversaries (1).
1.1 Security and Safety in V2X
Security and safety requirements are essential aspects for establishing new technology in automotive and avionics domains, therefore, security and safety requirements are challenging V2X communication. V2X safety applications require frequent exchange of information by means of Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) or Basic Safety Messages (BSMs), which are generated, encoded and sent to all vehicles and then the corresponding actions have to be executed on receiving vehicles. So, message processing and data visualization are a key technology that influence the performance and the usability of the V2X communication system.
Due to the popularity of the V2X system, it becomes the major target of the attackers, making them vulnerable to security threats, and thus affecting the safety of passengers, vehicles and roads. Existing research in V2X does not effectively address the safety, security and performance limitation threats to connected vehicles, as a result of considering these aspects separately instead of jointly (3).
In (3) focus on analysis of tradeoff between safety, security, and performance of V2X systems together, considering the needs of application and seeks to achieve the maximum safety on the roads, and using an Internet-of-vehicle. So, the main major target for V2X systems is safety and communication infrastructures to ensure the communication between vehicles and Road Side Units (RSUs). The source of the message has to be trusted (trust anchor), the secure storage of the secret keys, and the content of the message needs to be protected from the outside interference which means, a secure trustworthy communication between vehicles. To provide such trusted environment, V2X system has to include a security infrastructure to authenticate the messages, a communication network providing system security between vehicles and infrastructures in the road (entities), and also an accurate analysis of a security requirements is required to devise security measures that are effective and cost-effective (4).