VERTICAL for secular income growth in aVERTICAL for secular income growth in a


Refers to person or group moving up or down in status
hierarchy or stratification it may be either from higher to lower or lower to
higher. In other words when person changes his position from one level to
another. It is also referred as social mobility 
in our Urban area with high level of income segregation there is less
economic mobility because to which poor lives apart from richer is more clear
indication of economic mobility. Families living in any type of society with
any metropolitan area are transmitting their own resources and work ethnic to
their children. This is the reason for the upward prospect mobility among
children growing up in poor cities with high economic segregation like
Peshawar, Islamabad etc. is very different from people living in cities with
less economic segregation like Lahore. Mobility is being threatened by
inequality. It is a timed policy.

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Intergenerational mobility refers to changes in social
status between different generations within the same family. What sorts of
mechanisms determine intergenerational income mobility? We highlight four
types:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Assortative mating                                                                                                                                                                                            
Genetic transmission                                                                                                                                                                                               Social
level transmission model                                                                              
Transmission Models                                                                                                                                           
mobility is commonly regarded as a measure of the degree of equality of
opportunity in a society. If the variance of the income distribution has
changed, then the IGE will be the intergenerational correlation weighted by
ratio of variances in the two generations. Both elasticities and correlations intergenerational
mobility have been widely used in literature. The use of logarithm of income
reflects the objective of measuring mobility after accounting for secular
income growth in a society. Because of relatively limited labor force
participation of women, most studies look at the relationship of incomes of
fathers and sons. We focus on the IGE as it the more commonly used measure.



It is all about whether or not we can move into a different
economic situation from family we are born. It is partly because of whatever
family provide us whether or not they can support our physical, psychological,
economical, educational situations or whether they are able to help us in our
career via their own networks. One of the way, why intra-generation mobility is
restricted is because of inheritance (What we passed to our offspring). Some of
my friends said that people must be motivated by the fact that they want to
provide their families with such facilities which they can’t but they wanted
to!! Considering such ideas from our friends that have key role in ascending
intra-generation mobility like living in such country where a person can quite
easily move abroad in order to live their own ways of life to come on in the
society with relatively higher level such that a person working as assistant in
a factory becoming supervisor in that company after promotion.


family role is actually the autonomy of parents and children or the related
blood to live together or not society can alter the definition as society grows
and changes…………                         Nowadays  gender ideologies emphasizes the value of
distinctive roles for women and men where men fulfill their family roles
through breadwinning activities and women fulfill their roles through homemaker
and parenting activities along with breadwinning in majorities of families who
are open minded A woman is now known how to sew, spin and weave, tend vegetable
and medicinal herb gardens A woman needed to know how to sew, spin and weave,
tend vegetable and medicinal herb gardens, although the current situation has
rolled the wheel in the whole country now-a-days. Globalization is actually the
interaction among countries, societies and peoples etc extending from small
part of society to the whole world and then the global it is also the tendency
of investments and businesses to move beyond domestic markets to ones abroad,
increasing not only trade, but also cultural exchange. Globalization is
actually the interaction among countries, societies and peoples etc extending
from small part of society to the whole world and then the global it is also
the tendency of investments and businesses to move beyond domestic markets to
ones abroad, increasing not only trade, but also cultural exchange. It takes
place on certain levels including economic, social and cultural level there is
the death of conventional families and female autonomy in 21st century to this
new global roles including:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Increased Immigration

Shift in manufacturing abroad

Globalization of media                                                                                                                                  

More financial crises                                                                                                                                      


Changing Roles of Women are:

Transnational Families                                                                                                                  

Gender, Work-Family Issues                                                                                                                      



Policy Recommendations:                                                                                                           

Assisting Poor and Marginalized Groups

In high level of social mobility there is a surge movement
individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or
between social strata in a society the Horizontal social mobility, Vertical
social mobility, Intergenerational mobility, Intra-generational mobility,
Occupational Mobility. Families play a key role in the study of social mobility
and the autonomous increment for females to reject traditional family roles The
Pakistani families has undergone important changes since the end days of
twentieth century and the start of twenty first century. Divorce, no marital
childbearing, and cohabitation increased dramatically. The rise in divorce and
cohabitation made the family a less stable unit of socialization and led to
raise their lives off the traditional family arrangements with complex
configurations of residential, cultural, social, ethical and biological ties.
As a result of these changes, less than half of children spend their entire
childhood in an intact, two-biological parent household, and families are no
longer defined solely by shared residence or biology. The instability and
complexity of family life had made the lives of family system to distract and
live their own lives to come on to forward to make their better. Divorce and
parental separation due to any cause are damaging to children, families, the
economy, and society as a whole in majority of cases but nowadays it has been
outlined that not all children or parents will experience every negative
consequence some has adapts their lives even better than before and keeping
these situation in views majority of females had preferred to live their lives
apart from their families for whatever the reasons that are and this situation
had broken through in 21st century. These all situations had led to give the
autonomy to the females because all these situations had made it unreliable for
the females to be in role in the society. And nowadays, the tradition is shifting
towards the rejection of family roles although it is rejected far before
abroad, e:g; Today women make up approximately 1/3 of labor force, and in 20th
century Most Pakistanis applaud these trends, and very few would favor a return
to more traditional gender roles. In a 21st few Research survey, maximum
professionals, of all adults agreed that “women should return to their
traditional roles in society.” Fully eight-in-ten adults (79%) rejected this
idea. When it comes to mothers of young children, the public is more
conflicted. Relatively few think the trend toward more mothers of young
children working outside the home is a good thing for our society, and only
very few says that having a mother who works full time is the ideal situation
for a young child.