What is CRISPR? Simply out, CRISPR is not a new but also the most promising and advanced genome editing tool. Recent Studies on genetically-engineered human-embryos have made this method of editing even more popular in recent times. But when you back in history, especially the last few decades, you will come across studies where scientists have been editing genomes. So why is CRISPR suddenly making headlines? What makes it stand out from all other editing tools?With CRISPR, scientists are allowed to edit genomes with pinpoint accuracy (Unprecedented precision), efficiency and flexibility. With this method scientists can literally create new life from other beings with targeted mutations. With recent developments in Bioengineering and Biomedical equipments, the potential is high and risks are low.If used correctly and ethically, CRISPR has the potential to cure diseases both genetic and man-made. In other words, CRISPR among other genome editing tools, is a far better technique. Who created CRISPR? Or Should we say who invented it? How was it invented? Surprisingly, CRISPR was neither created nor invented by a human being. In-fact, CRISPR has been in nature from since the beginning of life form on earth. The bacteria is one of the oldest living organisms on earth thanks to there ability to survive the extremely harsh atmosphere that existed about 3 billion years ago. As time passed, viruses came to be, and just like human beings, The bacteria evolved into extremely complex organisms while viruses evolved into simpler ones. One of the main reasons for CRISPR to exist is for the bacteria to protect themselves from viruses. But how exactly does CRISPR work? How do bacteria’s use CRISPR to protect themselves from viruses? – ” The CRISPR method is based on a natural system used by bacteria to protect themselves form viruses. When the bacterium detects the presence of virus DNA(Deoxyribonucleic acid), it produces two types of short RNA(Ribonucleic acid) one of which contains a sequence that matches that of the invading virus. These tow RNAs for a complex with a protein with called Cas9. Cas9 is a nucleus, a type of enzyme that can cut DNA. When a matching sequence known as a guide RNA finds its target within the viral genome, he Cas9 cuts the target DNA disabling the virus.” – (MIT Research) Simply put, when a virus attacks a bacteria, the bacteria uses its CRISPR array to produce segments of RNA, one of which is called a guide RNA to target the virus DNA. Once the new RNAs have attached themselves to the virus, the bacteria uses a protein called Cas9 or a similar enzyme to cut the viruses DNA, rendering it useless. In humans tests, Recent research has led to scientists realizing that this CRISPR-Cas9 system can be engineered to cut not just viral DNA but any DNA sequence at a precisely chosen location by changing the guide RNA to match the target. This can not only be done in test tubes but also in a living cells nucleus. The complex locks its self onto a sequence called the Pam where the Cas9 will release DNA and match it to the targeted RNA. As soon as the match is complete the Cas9 will cut the targeted DNA, rendering it useless. Using this method, scientists can not only prevent genetic diseases but potentially exterminate it before a human embryo is born. Scientists can also use this method to create cures that specifically target diseases such as Cancer, HIV/AIDS etc or even help patients with radiation poisoning or patients/ organisms with genetically mutated DNA due to radiation recover. As we have observed, this method of genome editing is not only precise, low in risk but also cheap. In fact,countries like the China, UK and US have approved the used of CRISPR-Cas9 on human embryos and adults. Among the latest developments on CRISPR is new from China where they are using CRISPR-Cas9 system to genetically modify pig organs so that they can successfully be transplanted into humans. Its applications have also been seen in food and agricultural industries. With continuous support and research, CRISPR-Cas9 system potential is exponential. But as for now there are limitations, “These seem like solvable problems but we know that it will take many years to solve them,” Dr Wild told WIRED. “In the short term CRISPR will be used to study disease in much more efficient and targeted ways, for example by developing new model systems or by simulating the effect of treatments using genetic editing,” Dr Wild says. Looking at the many potential applications of then CRISPR technology, we can’t help but raise questions about ethical merits and consequences of playing around with genomes. “In the 2014 Science article, Oye and colleagues point to the potential ecological impact of using gene drives. An introduced trait could spread beyond the target population to other organisms through cross-breeding. Gene drives could also reduce the genetic diversity of the target population.” Among the countries that have introduced CRISPR to there healthcare system, there are serious precautions that are being taken to avoid unethical uses of this technology. Patients that undergo these clinical trials SHOULD be notified about the health risks and get continuous oversight and through out the trails. The national Academies even urges the researchers to follow up on the families for multiple generations.