What listened to non-rock music. In ExperimentWhat listened to non-rock music. In Experiment
















What Effect Does the Media Have on
Male Aggression?


Kerianne Morrissey

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now


Dominican College



























Annotated Bibliography


C.A., Carnagey, N.L., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: the
effects of


with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and


Social Psychology, 84(5), 960-971.


The main purpose of this study
stems from the lack of research on music lyrics leading to aggression. There
has been research on television and video games but very little on music. The authors
built on what had emerged already about music lyrics by using a social
cognitive framework. The key question that the authors proposed were listening
to violent song lyrics will increase aggressive cognitions and aggressive
affect. The researchers conducted five experiments, using college students,
that followed the format of listening to selected songs, completing various
tasks and then asked questions to evaluate the affect the music had on them. In
Experiment 1, the researchers found that violent lyrics in rock music raise
hostile feelings in comparison to those who listened to non-rock music. In
Experiment 2, the researchers found those listening to violent music lead to associating
violence with ambiguous words more than those who did not hear the violent
music. In Experiment 3, the researchers broadened the experiment by increasing
the number of songs listened to from 1 to 4 and the time to complete the
psychological task was clocked. Despite these aspects there was no difference
from the first two experiments in that violent songs increased the violent
associations with ambiguous words. In Experiment 4, the researchers had the
music include songs with humor and trait hostility was also measured. Participants
completed a trait hostility questionnaire prior to listening to the music,
followed by the word association task. The main finding of this experiment was
that the humorous violent songs appeared to have no difference on the results
of state hostility and aggressive affect. In Experiment 5, the researchers
compared violent music and trait hostility with state hostility and aggressive
cognition with humorous and non-humorous music. The results remained the same
from Experiment 4. Spanning the five experiments it was concluded by the
researchers that listening to music with violent song lyrics increased
aggression cognition and affect that was directly related to the music, not
other factors. One limitation of the study is that the resulting aggression
could only be short term. For future research, the authors suggest longitudinal
studies to help look at both the short and long-term effects of listening to
violent music.

S.M. (2016). Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on


in adolescents: a three-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology,




The purpose of this study was to look
at the relational aggression shown on the television and its effect on
aggressive behavior over three years. The key question of this study is if the
exposure to relational aggression on television over a three-year period would
then lead to relational aggression in adolescence. A second question the researcher
looked at was if being exposed to relational aggression would lead to physical
aggression. The main conclusions of the researcher are there is a relationship between
viewing relational aggression and acting relationally aggressive. Acting
relationally aggressive, however, did not predict ongoing viewing habits of relational
aggression on the television. The researcher also found that viewing relational
aggression alters the way one sees it therefore increasing the likelihood of
aggressive behavior. It was already found previously that viewing relational aggression
affects attitudes over time but this article shows that viewing relational
aggression also affects aggressive behavior over time. The method used to
collect data in this study was questionnaires of favorite television shows,
rating one’s own relational and physical aggression, from 467 adolescents. Some
limitations of this study are the backgrounds of the adolescents who
participated, relational aggression was only measured through television, the
questionnaires were self-report, and the participants were limited to adolescents.
Future research suggests looking at childhood where relational aggression is
learned and could shape behavior over time, and to look at other media channels
where relational aggression is viewed.

Krahe, B.,
Moller, I., Huesmann, L.R., Kirwil, L., Felber, J., & Berger, A. (2011).


to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure,


cognitions, and aggressive behavior. Journal
of Personality and Social


Psychology, 100(4), 630-646.


The main purpose of this article is
to contribute to the existing evidence that there is a connection between desensitization
to violent media and aggressive thoughts and actions. The researchers have four
key questions they are looking at: the higher the violence exposure the less
physical arousal will result in reaction to a violent film snippet in
comparison with arousal prior to watching the snippet; the higher level of violent
media viewing prior to the film snippet will result in pleasant arousal; the
decreased level of anxious arousal and increased level of pleasant arousal to
the violent film snippet the more quickly aggressive thoughts will be available;
and the connection between emotional arousal and aggressive thoughts is
dependent on the violence in the film. Participants consisted of 625 college
students who filled out an online questionnaire about emotional responses to
films. The second part of the experiment was in a laboratory where they watched
a film while being monitored physically, participated in a task, followed by
questions. In the questionnaire survey online, answers were measured by
habitual media violence exposure, trait arousal, trait aggression, and
aggressive beliefs. In the laboratory sessions researchers measured violent
film clips, physiological arousal, self-reported responses to the film,
accessibility to aggressive thoughts, and aggressive behavior. In the
laboratory measure of self- reported arousal there was a significance between
the response of men and women. The men scored higher on feeling pleasant while
watching the films and the women reported higher anxious arousal while watching
the films. The researchers found that frequently watching violent media reduces
the physical response to the film. It was also found that there was a positive
relationship between frequency of violent media exposure and the pleasant
arousal from watching the films that was present for both genders, and only
present in females for the anxious arousal variable. The third finding was that
the higher the pleasant arousal for watching the films the shorter the time it
took for aggressive thoughts to be displayed in the task. Even though there was
a greater arousal it was not statistically significant. The last finding is frequent
watching of violent media revealed positive responses to violent film parts
more than those who had less violent media viewing. Limitations of the study are
the physical responses to the films were recorded immediately after, the impact
arousal had on real life was not examined, and the viewing of films is a
passive form of media. The authors suggest for future research it would be
worthwhile to compare the effects of passive media and interactive media such
as video games.

C., Ferguson, C.J., Galvanovskis, G., & Smither, R. (2013). Predicting
violence: a cross-

national study of United States and
Mexican young adults. Journal of Social
and Clinical Psychology, 32(1), 54-70.

The purpose of this article is to expand
the view of potential variables that might be predictors of aggression and
violent acts. This study takes on a cross cultural analysis to explore if
culture has anything to do with the levels of aggression and violence. The key
questions of this study are if young adults in Mexico and the United States have
more or less violent behaviors, and are the factors contributing to them the
same or different. The variables the researchers selected to explore to answer
these questions are empathy and individualism compared to collectivism. The
data was collected through surveys given to college students in both countries
that consisted of demographic information, interest in viewing violent media,
individualism-collectivism, empathy, aggressiveness, and history of criminal
acts. The participants consisted of 421 people, 67 men and 131 women from the United
States, and 88 men and 135 women from Mexico. The instruments used to gather information
about these topics were the Pleasure at Viewing Violent Media scale, 16
questions about individualist or collective attitudes, the Interpersonal
Reactivity Index, the Aggression Questionnaire, and the Violent Criminal
Behavior Measurement. The findings of the data collected was United States
participants had a lower level of violent acts, more men participated in
violent acts than women, and that the level of interest in violent media
predicted violent acts but not the level of exposure to violent media. Some
limitations to the study are questions on the instruments could have possibly
been mistranslated for the Spanish speaking participants, the sample was only
college students, and the self-report model is vulnerable to biased results. The
researchers conclude that violence is more innate than learned, implying
variables predicting violence may be related to family elements and culture
rather than external factors like the exposure to the media. The factors making
one vulnerable to violence are male, aggressive personality, and an interest in
viewing violent media. Therefore, the researchers suggest shifting the focus
from external factors like media exposure, to internal ones like stress, family
troubles, anger, and mental health in future research to gain a better
understanding and preventative measures.

K. D., & Levant, R.F. (2012). Does the endorsement of traditional
masculinity ideology

moderate the relationship between
exposure to violent video games and aggression? The

of Men’s Studies, 20(1),

The purpose of this article is to
examine the relationship between exposure to violent video games and
aggression. The authors’ key question was exploring traditional masculinity
ideology as being a moderator to the relationship between exposure to violent video
games and aggression. The researchers surveyed 168 college students who
completed questionnaires that consisted of a general background survey, the
Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised questionnaire, the Exposure to Violent
Videogames questionnaire, and the Aggression questionnaire. The Male Role
Inventory measured attitudes toward avoidance of femininity, negativity toward
sexual minorities, self-reliance through mechanic skills, toughness, dominance,
importance of sex, and emotionality. The videogames questionnaire measured for
how frequently video games were played, and how violent the content. The aggression
questionnaire called for scoring statements on how closely they reflected the
participants behavior. The questions were based on physical aggression, verbal
aggression, anger, and hostility. There were several findings that emerged: exposure
to violent video games had a strong correlation to physical aggression, the
Male Role Inventory variable of toughness measured as having the strongest
correlation to physical aggression on the aggression scale, the endorsement of
traditional masculinity ideology was a predictor of aggression but exposure to
video games was not, and the higher the endorsement of traditional masculinity
ideology results in a positive relationship to aggression and violent video
game exposure while the lower the endorsement of traditional masculinity
ideology resulted in a low or no relationship to aggression and exposure to
video games. This study has two major limitations starting with the self-report
model of surveys having possibly biased results, and the sample being
university students who were mainly white, heterosexual, Christian and middle
class. The researchers suggest for future studies to look at children in longitudinal
studies to measure behavior when video game playing is typically started and
how it effects behavior over time. The second suggestion is to use a study that
does not rely on surveys to collect the information to avoid potentially biased
results. The third suggestion is to conduct a study with a more diverse group
of participants to strengthen the relationship findings.




















What Effect Does the Media Have on
Male Aggression?


In the world today, you cannot turn
on the news without hearing a report of another assault or mass shooting. The
level of violence that is happening makes it an issue difficult to ignore. What
causes this violence and aggression is something worth exploring to prevent
these horrific acts from continuing to happen.

Aggression and violence is a
multilayered issue with many variables. These articles attempt to look at
different forms of media such as music, film, and video games as variables that
might predict aggressive or violent behavior. It was found that listening to
violent music does increase the aggressive way of thinking that is directly
related to the music itself (Anderson, C.A., Carnagey, N.L., & Eubanks, J.,
2003). It was also found that frequently watching violent films reduces the
physical responses to violence (Krahe, B., Moller, I., Huesmann, L.R., Kirwil,
L., Felber, J., & Berger, A., 2011). A positive relationship between
frequency of violent media exposure and the pleasant arousal from watching the
films, by both genders, was also found (Krahe et al, 2011). The higher the
pleasant arousal a participant had the shorter time it took for them to access
aggressive thoughts (Krahe et al, 2011). Exposure to violent video games was
found to be correlated to physical aggression (Thomas, K. D., & Levant,
R.F., 2012). Physical toughness was measured as having the strongest
relationship to physical aggression (Thomas, K. et al 2012). The endorsement of
traditional masculinity ideology was found to be a predictor of aggression but
the lower endorsement of this ideology had no relationship to aggression or
exposure to violent video games (Thomas, K. et al, 2012). Although these
articles made a connection to aggression and exposure to violent media the
common limitation for all was the time between the viewing and the aggression
being short term. It was a general consensus that it would be beneficial to
conduct longitudinal studies to assess how the viewing would impact behavior
over time. There is also a common thread throughout that the relationship to aggression
is not necessarily the frequency of exposure but the arousal that it creates. There
was no statistically significant measure that made gender a differentiating variable
for aggression in the studies that included both men and women.

Two studies looked at aggression
through different variables to expand the lens on the causes of violence. One
study looked at violence cross culturally and the other looked at relational
aggression. It was found that viewing relational aggression does affect
behavior over time (Coyne, S.M., 2016). There is a relationship that was found
between viewing relationally aggressive television and acting relationally aggressive
(Coyne, 2016). It is noted in the study that girls exhibit much higher levels
of relational aggression because it is indirect, and has less severe
consequences (Coyne, 2016). The cross-cultural study of Mexican and American
university students concluded that Mexicans have a higher level of violent acts
than Americans, and more specifically men have higher levels of past violence
than women (Negy, C., Ferguson, C.J., Galvanovskis, G., & Smither, R., 2013).
 It was also found that it was the level
of interest in violent media that predicted violent acts and not the level of
exposure (Negy et al, 2013). It can be inferred from these two articles that
aggression and violence are not necessarily gained from the frequency of exposure
to media but rather the interest in it and how that impacts behavior.

In conclusion, it was not found
that the media has an effect on male aggression specifically. It appears that
both men and women have the potential to exhibit aggression. However, women
might be under the radar because of the method of aggression they choose is not
realized as being aggressive such as bullying or rumor spreading (Coyne, 2016).
All of these studies have similar limitations in that they are limited to one
demographic specifically, either adolescents or college students. This leaves a
major gap in the literature to the behavior of those who do not attend college.
It emerges in the literature that it is not necessarily the exposure to violent
media that is a predictor but the personality of the person choosing to view
it. Future research should focus on children and their potential for aggression
to gain a larger picture of how these behaviors are developed. There should
also be a change of focus from the outer variables to the inner variables. An
introspective approach to aggression and how it emerges would benefit not only
the person but society as a whole to take preventative measures that would put
an end to future violence.